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texinode(User Contributions)()(Zftp Function System)(Top)
chapter(User Contributions)
cindex(user contributions)
sect(Description)

The Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by the
user community.  These are not inherently a part of the shell, and some
may not be available in every zsh installation.  The most significant of
these are documented here.  For documentation on other contributed items
such as shell functions, look for comments in the function source files.

startmenu()
menu(Utilities)
menu(Recent Directories)
menu(Other Directory Functions)
menu(Version Control Information)
menu(Prompt Themes)
menu(ZLE Functions)
menu(Exception Handling)
menu(MIME Functions)
menu(Mathematical Functions)
menu(User Configuration Functions)
menu(Other Functions)
endmenu()

texinode(Utilities)(Recent Directories)()(User Contributions)
sect(Utilities)

subsect(Accessing On-Line Help)
cindex(helpfiles utility)

The key sequence tt(ESC h) is normally bound by ZLE to execute the
tt(run-help) widget (see
ifzman(zmanref(zshzle))\
ifnzman(noderef(Zsh Line Editor))\
).  This invokes the tt(run-help) command with the command word from the
current input line as its argument.  By default, tt(run-help) is an alias
for the tt(man) command, so this often fails when the command word is a
shell builtin or a user-defined function.  By redefining the tt(run-help)
alias, one can improve the on-line help provided by the shell.

The tt(helpfiles) utility, found in the tt(Util) directory of the
distribution, is a Perl program that can be used to process the zsh manual
to produce a separate help file for each shell builtin and for many other
shell features as well.  The autoloadable tt(run-help) function, found in
tt(Functions/Misc), searches for these helpfiles and performs several
other tests to produce the most complete help possible for the command.

Help files are installed by default to a subdirectory of tt(/usr/share/zsh)
or tt(/usr/local/share/zsh).

To create your own help files with tt(helpfiles), choose or create a
directory where the individual command help files will reside.  For
example, you might choose tt(~/zsh_help).  If you unpacked the zsh
distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

example(mkdir ~/zsh_help
perl ~/zsh-version()/Util/helpfiles ~/zsh_help)

vindex(HELPDIR)
The tt(HELPDIR) parameter tells tt(run-help) where to look for the help
files. When unset, it uses the default installation path.
To use your own set of help files, set this to the appropriate path
in one of your startup files:

example(HELPDIR=~/zsh_help)

findex(run-help, use of)
To use the tt(run-help) function, you need to add lines something
like the following to your tt(.zshrc) or equivalent startup file:

example(unalias run-help
autoload run-help)

Note that in order for `tt(autoload run-help)' to work, the tt(run-help)
file must be in one of the directories named in your tt(fpath) array (see
ifzman(zmanref(zshparam))\
ifnzman(noderef(Parameters Used By The Shell))\
).  This should already be the case if you have a standard zsh
installation; if it is not, copy tt(Functions/Misc/run-help) to an
appropriate directory.

subsect(Recompiling Functions)
cindex(functions, recompiling)
cindex(zrecompile utility)

If you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your zsh
installation to track the latest developments, you may find that function
digests compiled with the tt(zcompile) builtin are frequently out of date
with respect to the function source files.  This is not usually a problem,
because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a function, but
it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.  Also, if a digest
file is explicitly used as an element of tt(fpath), zsh won't check whether
any of its source files has changed.

The tt(zrecompile) autoloadable function, found in tt(Functions/Misc), can
be used to keep function digests up to date.

startitem()
findex(zrecompile)
xitem(tt(zrecompile) [ tt(-qt) ] [ var(name) ... ])
item(tt(zrecompile) [ tt(-qt) ] tt(-p) var(arg) ... [ tt(-)tt(-) var(arg) ... ])(
This tries to find tt(*.zwc) files and automatically re-compile them if at
least one of the original files is newer than the compiled file.  This
works only if the names stored in the compiled files are full paths or are
relative to the directory that contains the tt(.zwc) file.

In the first form, each var(name) is the name of a compiled file or a
directory containing tt(*.zwc) files that should be checked.  If no
arguments are given, the directories and tt(*.zwc) files in tt(fpath) are
used.

When tt(-t) is given, no compilation is performed, but a return status of
zero (true) is set if there are files that need to be re-compiled and
non-zero (false) otherwise.  The tt(-q) option quiets the chatty output
that describes what tt(zrecompile) is doing.

Without the tt(-t) option, the return status is zero if all files that
needed re-compilation could be compiled and non-zero if compilation for at
least one of the files failed.

If the tt(-p) option is given, the var(arg)s are interpreted as one
or more sets of arguments for tt(zcompile), separated by `tt(-)tt(-)'.
For example:

example(zrecompile -p \ 
           -R ~/.zshrc -- \ 
           -M ~/.zcompdump -- \ 
           ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*)

This compiles tt(~/.zshrc) into tt(~/.zshrc.zwc) if that doesn't exist or
if it is older than tt(~/.zshrc). The compiled file will be marked for
reading instead of mapping. The same is done for tt(~/.zcompdump) and
tt(~/.zcompdump.zwc), but this compiled file is marked for mapping. The
last line re-creates the file tt(~/zsh/comp.zwc) if any of the files
matching the given pattern is newer than it.

Without the tt(-p) option, tt(zrecompile) does not create function digests
that do not already exist, nor does it add new functions to the digest.
)
enditem()

The following shell loop is an example of a method for creating function
digests for all functions in your tt(fpath), assuming that you have write
permission to the directories:

example(for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
  dir=$fpath[i]
  zwc=${dir:t}.zwc
  if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
    continue
  fi
  files=($dir/*(N-.))
  if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
    files=(${${(M)files%/*/*}#/})
    if ( cd $dir:h &&
         zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then
      fpath[i]=$fpath[i].zwc
    fi
  fi
done)

The tt(-U) and tt(-z) options are appropriate for functions in the default
zsh installation tt(fpath); you may need to use different options for your
personal function directories.

Once the digests have been created and your tt(fpath) modified to refer to
them, you can keep them up to date by running tt(zrecompile) with no
arguments.

subsect(Keyboard Definition)
cindex(keyboard definition)

findex(zkbd)
The large number of possible combinations of keyboards, workstations,
terminals, emulators, and window systems makes it impossible for zsh to
have built-in key bindings for every situation.  The tt(zkbd) utility,
found in tt(Functions/Misc), can help you quickly create key bindings for your
configuration.

Run tt(zkbd) either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

example(zsh -f ~/zsh-version()/Functions/Misc/zkbd)

When you run tt(zkbd), it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if
the default it offers is correct, just press return.  It then asks you to
press a number of different keys to determine characteristics of your
keyboard and terminal; tt(zkbd) warns you if it finds anything out of the
ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither tt(^H) nor tt(^?).

The keystrokes read by tt(zkbd) are recorded as a definition for an
associative array named tt(key), written to a file in the subdirectory
tt(.zkbd) within either your tt(HOME) or tt(ZDOTDIR) directory.  The name
of the file is composed from the tt(TERM), tt(VENDOR) and tt(OSTYPE)
parameters, joined by hyphens.

You may read this file into your tt(.zshrc) or another startup file with
the `tt(source)' or `tt(.)' commands, then reference the tt(key) parameter
in bindkey commands, like this:

example(source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
[[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
[[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
# etc.)

Note that in order for `tt(autoload zkbd)' to work, the tt(zkdb) file must
be in one of the directories named in your tt(fpath) array (see
ifzman(zmanref(zshparam))\
ifnzman(noderef(Parameters Used By The Shell))\
).  This should already be the case if you have a standard zsh
installation; if it is not, copy tt(Functions/Misc/zkbd) to an
appropriate directory.

subsect(Dumping Shell State)
cindex(reporter utility)

Occasionally you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell,
particularly if you are using a beta version of zsh or a development
release.  Usually it is sufficient to send a description of the
problem to one of the zsh mailing lists (see
ifzman(zmanref(zsh))\
ifnzman(noderef(Mailing Lists))\
), but sometimes one of the zsh developers will need to recreate your
environment in order to track the problem down.

The script named tt(reporter), found in the tt(Util) directory of the
distribution, is provided for this purpose.  (It is also possible to
tt(autoload reporter), but tt(reporter) is not installed in tt(fpath)
by default.)  This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state,
in the form of another script that can be read with `tt(zsh -f)' to
recreate that state.

To use tt(reporter), read the script into your shell with the `tt(.)'
command and redirect the output into a file:

example(. ~/zsh-version()/Util/reporter > zsh.report)

You should check the tt(zsh.report) file for any sensitive information
such as passwords and delete them by hand before sending the script to the
developers.  Also, as the output can be voluminous, it's best to wait for
the developers to ask for this information before sending it.

You can also use tt(reporter) to dump only a subset of the shell state.
This is sometimes useful for creating startup files for the first time.
Most of the output from reporter is far more detailed than usually is
necessary for a startup file, but the tt(aliases), tt(options), and
tt(zstyles) states may be useful because they include only changes from
the defaults.  The tt(bindings) state may be useful if you have created
any of your own keymaps, because tt(reporter) arranges to dump the keymap
creation commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

As is usual with automated tools, if you create a startup file with
tt(reporter), you should edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.
Note that if you're using the new completion system, you should em(not)
dump the tt(functions) state to your startup files with tt(reporter); use
the tt(compdump) function instead (see
ifzman(zmanref(zshcompsys))\
ifnzman(noderef(Completion System))\
).

startitem()
item(tt(reporter) [ var(state) ... ])(
findex(reporter)
Print to standard output the indicated subset of the current shell state.
The var(state) arguments may be one or more of:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(all))(Output everything listed below.)
sitem(tt(aliases))(Output alias definitions.)
sitem(tt(bindings))(Output ZLE key maps and bindings.)
sitem(tt(completion))(Output old-style tt(compctl) commands.
New completion is covered by tt(functions) and tt(zstyles).)
sitem(tt(functions))(Output autoloads and function definitions.)
sitem(tt(limits))(Output tt(limit) commands.)
sitem(tt(options))(Output tt(setopt) commands.)
sitem(tt(styles))(Same as tt(zstyles).)
sitem(tt(variables))(Output shell parameter assignments, plus tt(export)
commands for any environment variables.)
sitem(tt(zstyles))(Output tt(zstyle) commands.)
endsitem()

If the var(state) is omitted, tt(all) is assumed.
)

With the exception of `tt(all)', every var(state) can be abbreviated by
any prefix, even a single letter; thus tt(a) is the same as tt(aliases),
tt(z) is the same as tt(zstyles), etc.
enditem()

subsect(Manipulating Hook Functions)
cindex(hook function utility)

startitem()
findex(add-zsh-hook)
item(tt(add-zsh-hook) [ tt(-L) | tt(-dD) ] [ tt(-Uzk) ] var(hook) var(function))(
Several functions are special to the shell, as described in the section
ifnzman(Special Functions, noderef(Functions))\
ifzman(SPECIAL FUNCTIONS, see zmanref(zshmisc)),
in that they are automatically called at specific points during shell execution.
Each has an associated array consisting of names of functions to be
called at the same point; these are so-called `hook functions'.
The shell function tt(add-zsh-hook) provides a simple way of adding or
removing functions from the array.

var(hook) is one of tt(chpwd), tt(periodic), tt(precmd), tt(preexec),
tt(zshaddhistory), tt(zshexit), or tt(zsh_directory_name),
the special functions in question.  Note that tt(zsh_directory_name)
is called in a different way from the other functions, but may
still be manipulated as a hook.

var(function) is name of an ordinary shell function.  If no options
are given this will be added to the array of functions to be executed
in the given context.
Functions are invoked in the order they were added.

If the option tt(-L) is given, the current values for the hook arrays
are listed with tt(typeset).

If the option tt(-d) is given, the var(function) is removed from
the array of functions to be executed.

If the option tt(-D) is given, the var(function) is treated as a pattern
and any matching names of functions are removed from the array of
functions to be executed.

The options tt(-U), tt(-z) and tt(-k) are passed as arguments to
tt(autoload) for var(function).  For functions contributed with zsh, the
options tt(-Uz) are appropriate.
)
findex(add-zle-hook-widget)
item(tt(add-zle-hook-widget) [ tt(-L) | tt(-dD) ] [ tt(-Uzk) ] var(hook) var(widgetname))(
Several widget names are special to the line editor, as described in the section
ifnzman(Special Widgets, noderef(Zle Widgets))\
ifzman(Special Widgets, see zmanref(zshzle)),
in that they are automatically called at specific points during editing.
Unlike function hooks, these do not use a predefined array of other names
to call at the same point; the shell function tt(add-zle-hook-widget)
maintains a similar array and arranges for the special widget to invoke
those additional widgets.

var(hook) is one of tt(isearch-exit), tt(isearch-update),
tt(line-pre-redraw), tt(line-init), tt(line-finish), tt(history-line-set),
or tt(keymap-select), corresponding to each of the special widgets
tt(zle-isearch-exit), etc.  The special widget names are also accepted
as the var(hook) argument.

var(widgetname) is the name of a ZLE widget.  If no options are given this
is added to the array of widgets to be invoked in the given hook context.
Widgets are invoked in the order they were added, with
example(tt(zle )var(widgetname)tt( -Nw -f "nolast" -- "$@"))

vindex(WIDGET, in hooks)
Note that this means that the `tt(WIDGET)' special parameter tracks the
var(widgetname) when the widget function is called, rather than tracking
the name of the corresponding special hook widget.

If the option tt(-d) is given, the var(widgetname) is removed from
the array of widgets to be executed.

If the option tt(-D) is given, the var(widgetname) is treated as a pattern
and any matching names of widgets are removed from the array.

If var(widgetname) does not name an existing widget when added to the
array, it is assumed that a shell function also named var(widgetname) is
meant to provide the implementation of the widget.  This name is therefore
marked for autoloading, and the options tt(-U), tt(-z) and tt(-k) are
passed as arguments to tt(autoload) as with tt(add-zsh-hook).  The
widget is also created with `tt(zle -N )var(widgetname)' to cause the
corresponding function to be loaded the first time the hook is called.

The arrays of var(widgetname) are currently maintained in tt(zstyle)
contexts, one for each var(hook) context, with a style of `tt(widgets)'.
If the tt(-L) option is given, this set of styles is listed with
`tt(zstyle -L)'.  This implementation may change, and the special widgets
that refer to the styles are created only if tt(add-zle-hook-widget) is
called to add at least one widget, so if this function is used for any
hooks, then all hooks should be managed only via this function.
)
enditem()

texinode(Recent Directories)(Other Directory Functions)(Utilities)(User Contributions)
cindex(recent directories, maintaining list of)
cindex(directories, maintaining list of recent)
findex(cdr)
findex(_cdr)
findex(chpwd_recent_add)
findex(chpwd_recent_dirs)
findex(chpwd_recent_filehandler)
sect(Remembering Recent Directories)

The function tt(cdr) allows you to change the working directory to a
previous working directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is
similar in concept to the directory stack controlled by the tt(pushd),
tt(popd) and tt(dirs) builtins, but is more configurable, and as it stores
all entries in files it is maintained across sessions and (by default)
between terminal emulators in the current session.  Duplicates are
automatically removed, so that the list reflects the single most recent
use of each directory.

Note that the tt(pushd) directory stack is not actually modified or used
by tt(cdr) unless you configure it to do so as described in the
configuration section below.

subsect(Installation)

The system works by means of a hook function that is called every time the
directory changes.  To install the system, autoload the required functions
and use the tt(add-zsh-hook) function described above:

example(autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs)

Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which
command you use, the directory to which you change will be remembered
in most-recent-first order.

subsect(Use)

All direct user interaction is via the tt(cdr) function.

The argument to cdr is a number var(N) corresponding to the var(N)th most
recently changed-to directory.  1 is the immediately preceding directory;
the current directory is remembered but is not offered as a destination.
Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may refer to a directory
changed to in another window; you can avoid this by having per-terminal
files for storing directory as described for the
tt(recent-dirs-file) style below.

If you set the tt(recent-dirs-default) style described below tt(cdr)
will behave the same as tt(cd) if given a non-numeric argument, or more
than one argument.  The recent directory list is updated just the same
however you change directory.

If the argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar to tt(pushd)'s
behaviour of swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

Completion for the argument to tt(cdr) is available if compinit has been
run; menu selection is recommended, using:

example(zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection)

to allow you to cycle through recent directories; the order is preserved,
so the first choice is the most recent directory before the current one.
The verbose style is also recommended to ensure the directory is shown; this
style is on by default so no action is required unless you have changed it.

subsect(Options)

The behaviour of tt(cdr) may be modified by the following options.

startitem()
item(tt(-l))(
lists the numbers and the corresponding directories in
abbreviated form (i.e. with tt(~) substitution reapplied), one per line.
The directories here are not quoted (this would only be an issue if a
directory name contained a newline).  This is used by the completion
system.
)
item(tt(-r))(
sets the variable tt(reply) to the current set of directories.  Nothing
is printed and the directory is not changed.
)
item(tt(-e))(
allows you to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The
list can be edited to any extent you like; no sanity checking is
performed.  Completion is available.  No quoting is necessary (except for
newlines, where I have in any case no sympathy); directories are in
unabbreviated form and contain an absolute path, i.e. they start with tt(/).
Usually the first entry should be left as the current directory.
)
item(tt(-p ')var(pattern)tt('))(
Prunes any items in the directory list that match the given extended glob
pattern; the pattern needs to be quoted from immediate expansion on the
command line.  The pattern is matched against each completely expanded
file name in the list; the full string must match, so wildcards at the
end (e.g. tt('*removeme*')) are needed to remove entries with a given
substring.

If output is to a terminal, then the function will print the new list
after pruning and prompt for confirmation by the user.  This output and
confirmation step can be skipped by using tt(-P) instead of tt(-p).
)
enditem()

subsect(Configuration)

Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be familiar
from completion; if not, see the description of the tt(zstyle) command in
ifzman(see zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/zutil Module)).  The context for setting styles
should be tt(':chpwd:*') in case the meaning of the context is extended in
future, for example:

example(zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0)

sets the value of the tt(recent-dirs-max) style to 0.  In practice the
style name is specific enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

An exception is tt(recent-dirs-insert), which is used exclusively by the
completion system and so has the usual completion system context
(tt(':completion:*') if nothing more specific is needed), though again
tt('*') should be fine in practice.

startitem()
item(tt(recent-dirs-default))(
If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index, and
either there is more than one argument or the argument is not an
integer, then fall through to "cd".  This allows the lazy to use only
one command for directory changing.  Completion recognises this, too;
see recent-dirs-insert for how to control completion when this option
is in use.
)
item(tt(recent-dirs-file))(
The file where the list of directories is saved.  The default
is tt(${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs), i.e. this is in your
home directory unless you have set the variable tt(ZDOTDIR) to point
somewhere else.  Directory names are saved in tt($')var(...)tt(') quoted
form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly to the shell as an
argument.

The value of this style may be an array.  In this case, the first
file in the list will always be used for saving directories while any
other files are left untouched.  When reading the recent directory
list, if there are fewer than the maximum number of entries in the
first file, the contents of later files in the array will be appended
with duplicates removed from the list shown.  The contents of the two
files are not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file
are shown first.  The special value tt(+) can appear in the list to
indicate the default file should be read at that point.  This allows
effects like the following:

example(zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \ 
~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +)

Recent directories are read from a file numbered according to
the terminal.  If there are insufficient entries the list
is supplemented from the default file.

It is possible to use tt(zstyle -e) to make the directory configurable
at run time:

example(zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
pick-recent-dirs-file+LPAR()RPAR() {
  if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing+LPAR()|/*RPAR() ]]; then
    reply=(~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-writing)
  else
    reply=(+)
  fi
})

In this example, if the current directory is tt(~/text/writing) or a
directory under it, then use a special file for saving recent
directories, else use the default.
)
item(tt(recent-dirs-insert))(
Used by completion.  If tt(recent-dirs-default) is true, then setting
this to tt(true) causes the actual directory, rather than its index, to
be inserted on the command line; this has the same effect as using
the corresponding index, but makes the history clearer and the line
easier to edit.  With this setting, if part of an argument was
already typed, normal directory completion rather than recent
directory completion is done; this is because recent directory
completion is expected to be done by cycling through entries menu
fashion.

If the value of the style is tt(always), then only recent directories will
be completed; in that case, use the tt(cd) command when you want to
complete other directories.

If the value is tt(fallback), recent directories will be tried first, then
normal directory completion is performed if recent directory completion
failed to find a match.

Finally, if the value is tt(both) then both sets of completions are
presented; the usual tag mechanism can be used to distinguish results, with
recent directories tagged as tt(recent-dirs).  Note that the recent
directories inserted are abbreviated with directory names where appropriate.
)
item(tt(recent-dirs-max))(
The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If
this is zero or negative there is no maximum.  The default is 20.
Note this includes the current directory, which isn't offered,
so the highest number of directories you will be offered
is one less than the maximum.
)
item(tt(recent-dirs-prune))(
This style is an array determining what directories should (or should
not) be added to the recent list.  Elements of the array can include:

startitem()
item(tt(parent))(
Prune parents (more accurately, ancestors) from the recent list.
If present, changing directly down by any number of directories
causes the current directory to be overwritten.  For example,
changing from ~pws to ~pws/some/other/dir causes ~pws not to be
left on the recent directory stack.  This only applies to direct
changes to descendant directories; earlier directories on the
list are not pruned.  For example, changing from ~pws/yet/another
to ~pws/some/other/dir does not cause ~pws to be pruned.
)
item(tt(pattern:)var(pattern))(
Gives a zsh pattern for directories that should not be
added to the recent list (if not already there).  This element
can be repeated to add different patterns.  For example,
tt('pattern:/tmp+LPAR()|/*RPAR()') stops tt(/tmp) or its descendants
from being added.  The tt(EXTENDED_GLOB) option is always turned on
for these patterns.
)
enditem()
)
item(tt(recent-dirs-pushd))(
If set to true, tt(cdr) will use tt(pushd) instead of tt(cd) to change the
directory, so the directory is saved on the directory stack.  As the
directory stack is completely separate from the list of files saved
by the mechanism used in this file there is no obvious reason to do
this.
)
enditem()

subsect(Use with dynamic directory naming)

It is possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic directory
name syntax by using the supplied function tt(zsh_directory_name_cdr)
a hook:

example(autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr)

When this is done, tt(~[1]) will refer to the most recent
directory other than $PWD, and so on.  Completion after tt(~[)var(...)
also works.

subsect(Details of directory handling)

This section is for the curious or confused; most users will not
need to know this information.

Recent directories are saved to a file immediately and hence are
preserved across sessions.  Note currently no file locking is applied:
the list is updated immediately on interactive commands and nowhere else
(unlike history), and it is assumed you are only going to change
directory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared accounts,
but in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is
changing to a different set of directories behind your back.

To make this a little safer, only directory changes instituted from the
command line, either directly or indirectly through shell function calls
(but not through subshells, evals, traps, completion functions and the
like) are saved.  Shell functions should use tt(cd -q) or tt(pushd -q) to
avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible at the
command line.  See the contents of the function tt(chpwd_recent_dirs) for
more details.

texinode(Other Directory Functions)(Version Control Information)(Recent Directories)(User Contributions)
cindex(directories, named, dynamic, helper function)
cindex(dynamic directory naming, helper function)
cindex(named directories, dynamic, helper function)
findex(zsh_directory_name_generic)
sect(Abbreviated dynamic references to directories)

The dynamic directory naming system is described in the subsection
em(Dynamic named directories) of
ifzman(the section em(Filename Expansion) in zmanref(zshexpn))\
ifnzman(noderef(Filename Expansion)).  In this, a reference to
tt(~[)var(...)tt(]) is expanded by a function found by the hooks
mechanism.

The contributed function tt(zsh_directory_name_generic) provides a
system allowing the user to refer to directories with only a limited
amount of new code.  It supports all three of the standard interfaces
for directory naming: converting from a name to a directory, converting
in the reverse direction to find a short name, and completion of names.

The main feature of this function is a path-like syntax,
combining abbreviations at multiple levels separated by ":".
As an example, ~[g:p:s] might specify:
startitem()
item(tt(g))(
The top level directory for your git area.  This first component
has to match, or the function will return indicating another
directory name hook function should be tried.
)
item(tt(p))(
The name of a project within your git area.
)
item(tt(s))(
The source area within that project.
)
enditem()
This allows you to collapse references to long hierarchies to a very
compact form, particularly if the hierarchies are similar across different
areas of the disk.

Name components may be completed: if a description is shown at the top
of the list of completions, it includes the path to which previous
components expand, while the description for an individual completion
shows the path segment it would add.  No additional configuration is
needed for this as the completion system is aware of the dynamic
directory name mechanism.

subsect(Usage)

To use the function, first define a wrapper function for your specific
case.  We'll assume it's to be autoloaded.  This can have any name but
we'll refer to it as zdn_mywrapper.  This wrapper function will define
various variables and then call this function with the same arguments
that the wrapper function gets.  This configuration is described below.

Then arrange for the wrapper to be run as a zsh_directory_name hook:

example(autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_directory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper)

subsect(Configuration)

The wrapper function should define a local associative array zdn_top.
Alternatively, this can be set with a style called tt(mapping).  The
context for the style is tt(:zdn:)var(wrapper-name) where
var(wrapper-name) is the function calling zsh_directory_name_generic;
for example:

example(zstyle :zdn:zdn_mywrapper: mapping zdn_mywrapper_top)

The keys in this associative array correspond to the first component of
the name.  The values are matching directories.  They may have an
optional suffix with a slash followed by a colon and the name of a
variable in the same format to give the next component.  (The slash
before the colon is to disambiguate the case where a colon is needed in
the path for a drive.  There is otherwise no syntax for escaping this,
so path components whose names start with a colon are not supported.)  A
special component tt(:default:) specifies a variable in the form
tt(/:)var(var) (the path section is ignored and so is usually empty)
that will be used for the next component if no variable is given for the
path.  Variables referred to within tt(zdn_top) have the same format as
tt(zdn_top) itself, but contain relative paths.

For example,

example(local -A zdn_top=(
  g   ~/git
  ga  ~/alternate/git
  gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
  :default: /:second1
))

This specifies the behaviour of a directory referred to as tt(~[g:...])
or tt(~[ga:...]) or tt(~[gs:...]).  Later path components are optional;
in that case tt(~[g]) expands to tt(~/git), and so on.  tt(gs) expands
to tt(/scratch/$USER/git) and uses the associative array tt(second2) to
match the second component; tt(g) and tt(ga) use the associative array
tt(second1) to match the second component.

When expanding a name to a directory, if the first component is not tt(g) or
tt(ga) or tt(gs), it is not an error; the function simply returns 1 so that a
later hook function can be tried.  However, matching the first component
commits the function, so if a later component does not match, an error
is printed (though this still does not stop later hooks from being
executed).

For components after the first, a relative path is expected, but note that
multiple levels may still appear.  Here is an example of tt(second1):

example(local -A second1=(
  p   myproject
  s   somproject
  os  otherproject/subproject/:third
))

The path as found from tt(zdn_top) is extended with the matching
directory, so tt(~[g:p]) becomes tt(~/git/myproject).  The slash between
is added automatically (it's not possible to have a later component
modify the name of a directory already matched).  Only tt(os) specifies
a variable for a third component, and there's no tt(:default:), so it's
an error to use a name like tt(~[g:p:x]) or tt(~[ga:s:y]) because
there's nowhere to look up the tt(x) or tt(y).

The associative arrays need to be visible within this function; the
generic function therefore uses internal variable names beginning
tt(_zdn_) in order to avoid clashes.  Note that the variable tt(reply)
needs to be passed back to the shell, so should not be local in the
calling function.

The function does not test whether directories assembled by component
actually exist; this allows the system to work across automounted
file systems.  The error from the command trying to use a non-existent
directory should be sufficient to indicate the problem.

subsect(Complete example)

Here is a full fictitious but usable autoloadable definition of the
example function defined by the code above.  So tt(~[gs:p:s]) expands
to tt(/scratch/$USER/git/myscratchproject/top/srcdir) (with tt($USER)
also expanded).

example(local -A zdn_top=(
  g   ~/git
  ga  ~/alternate/git
  gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
  :default: /:second1
)

local -A second1=(
  p   myproject
  s   somproject
  os  otherproject/subproject/:third
)

local -A second2=(
  p   myscratchproject
  s   somescratchproject
)

local -A third=(
  s   top/srcdir
  d   top/documentation
)

# autoload not needed if you did this at initialisation...
autoload -Uz zsh_directory_name_generic
zsh_directory_name_generic "$@)

It is also possible to use global associative arrays, suitably named,
and set the style for the context of your wrapper function to
refer to this.  Then your set up code would contain the following:

example(typeset -A zdn_mywrapper_top=(...)
# ... and so on for other associative arrays ...
zstyle ':zdn:zdn_mywrapper:' mapping zdn_mywrapper_top
autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_directory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper)

and the function tt(zdn_mywrapper) would contain only the following:

example(zsh_directory_name_generic "$@")

texinode(Version Control Information)(Prompt Themes)(Other Directory Functions)(User Contributions)
sect(Gathering information from version control systems)
cindex(version control utility)

In a lot of cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information from
version control systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to be able
to provide it to the user; possibly in the user's prompt. So that you can
instantly tell which branch you are currently on, for example.

In order to do that, you may use the tt(vcs_info) function.

The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which
they are referred to within the system:
startsitem()
sitem(Bazaar (tt(bzr)))(uref(https://bazaar.canonical.com/))
sitem(Codeville (tt(cdv)))(uref(http://freecode.com/projects/codeville/))
sitem(Concurrent Versioning System (tt(cvs)))(uref(https://www.nongnu.org/cvs/))
sitem(Darcs (tt(darcs)))(uref(http://darcs.net/))
sitem(Fossil (tt(fossil)))(uref(https://fossil-scm.org/))
sitem(Git (tt(git)))(uref(https://git-scm.com/))
sitem(GNU arch (tt(tla)))(uref(https://www.gnu.org/software/gnu-arch/))
sitem(Mercurial (tt(hg)))(uref(https://www.mercurial-scm.org/))
sitem(Monotone (tt(mtn)))(uref(https://monotone.ca/))
sitem(Perforce (tt(p4)))(uref(https://www.perforce.com/))
sitem(Subversion (tt(svn)))(uref(https://subversion.apache.org/))
sitem(SVK (tt(svk)))(uref(https://svk.bestpractical.com/))
endsitem()

There is also support for the patch management system tt(quilt)
(uref(https://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/quilt)). See
ifzman(bf(Quilt Support))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Quilt Support))
below for details.

To load tt(vcs_info):

example(autoload -Uz vcs_info)

It can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any
specific tt($psvar) entries to be available.

startmenu()
menu(vcs_info Quickstart)
menu(vcs_info Configuration)
menu(vcs_info Oddities)
menu(vcs_info Quilt Support)
menu(vcs_info API)
menu(vcs_info Variables)
menu(vcs_info Hooks)
menu(vcs_info Examples)
endmenu()

texinode(vcs_info Quickstart)(vcs_info Configuration)()(Version Control Information)
subsect(Quickstart)

To get this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do the
following (assuming, you loaded tt(vcs_info) properly - see above):

example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \ 
    '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \ 
    '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
precmd () { vcs_info }
PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# ')

Obviously, the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to
call tt(vcs_info) from your tt(precmd) function. Once that is done you need
a em(single quoted) tt('${vcs_info_msg_0_}') in your prompt.

To be able to use tt('${vcs_info_msg_0_}') directly in your prompt like
this, you will need to have the tt(PROMPT_SUBST) option enabled.

Now call the tt(vcs_info_printsys) utility from the command line:

example(% vcs_info_printsys
## list of supported version control backends:
## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
bzr
cdv
cvs
darcs
fossil
git
hg
mtn
p4
svk
svn
tla
## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.
git-p4
git-svn
hg-git
hg-hgsubversion
hg-hgsvn)

You may not want all of these because there is no point in running the
code to detect systems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable
some backends altogether:

example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla)

You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn)

If you rerun tt(vcs_info_printsys) after one of these commands, you will
see the backends listed in the tt(disable) style (or backends not in the
tt(enable) style - if you used that) marked as disabled by a hash sign.
That means the detection of these systems is skipped em(completely). No
wasted time there.


texinode(vcs_info Configuration)(vcs_info Oddities)(vcs_info Quickstart)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Configuration)

The tt(vcs_info) feature can be configured via tt(zstyle).

First, the context in which we are working:
example(:vcs_info:var(vcs-string):var(user-context):var(repo-root-name))

startitem()
item(var(vcs-string))(
is one of: tt(git), tt(git-svn), tt(git-p4), tt(hg), tt(hg-git),
tt(hg-hgsubversion), tt(hg-hgsvn), tt(darcs), tt(bzr), tt(cdv), tt(mtn),
tt(svn), tt(cvs), tt(svk), tt(tla), tt(p4) or tt(fossil).
This is followed by `tt(.quilt-)var(quilt-mode)' in Quilt mode
(see ifzman(bf(Quilt Support))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Quilt Support)) for details)
and by `tt(+)var(hook-name)' while hooks are active
(see ifzman(bf(Hooks in vcs_info))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Hooks)) for details).

COMMENT(users/20807)
Currently, hooks in quilt mode don't add the `tt(.quilt-)var(quilt-mode)' information.
This may change in the future.
)
item(var(user-context))(
is a freely configurable string, assignable by
the user as the first argument to tt(vcs_info) (see its description
below).
)
item(var(repo-root-name))(
is the name of a repository in which you want a
style to match. So, if you want a setting specific to tt(/usr/src/zsh),
with that being a CVS checkout, you can set var(repo-root-name) to
tt(zsh) to make it so.
)
enditem()

There are three special values for var(vcs-string): The first is named
tt(-init-), that is in effect as long as there was no decision what VCS
backend to use. The second is tt(-preinit-); it is used em(before)
tt(vcs_info) is run, when initializing the data exporting variables. The
third special value is tt(formats) and is used by the tt(vcs_info_lastmsg)
for looking up its styles.

The initial value of var(repo-root-name) is tt(-all-) and it is replaced
with the actual name, as soon as it is known. Only use this part of the
context for defining the tt(formats), tt(actionformats) or
tt(branchformat) styles, as it is guaranteed that var(repo-root-name) is
set up correctly for these only. For all other styles, just use tt('*')
instead.

There are two pre-defined values for var(user-context):
startsitem()
sitem(tt(default))(the one used if none is specified)
sitem(tt(command))(used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles)
endsitem()

You can of course use tt(':vcs_info:*') to match all VCSs in all
user-contexts at once.

This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

startitem()
kindex(formats)
item(tt(formats))(
A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used
(which is most of the time).
)
kindex(actionformats)
item(tt(actionformats))(
A list of formats, used if there is a special
action going on in your current repository; like an interactive rebase or
a merge conflict.
)
kindex(branchformat)
item(tt(branchformat))(
Some backends replace tt(%b) in the formats and
actionformats styles above, not only by a branch name but also by a
revision number. This style lets you modify how that string should look.
)
kindex(nvcsformats)
item(tt(nvcsformats))(
These "formats" are set when we didn't detect a version control system
for the current directory or tt(vcs_info) was disabled. This is useful if
you want tt(vcs_info) to completely take over the generation of your
prompt. You would do something like tt(PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}') to
accomplish that.
)
kindex(hgrevformat)
item(tt(hgrevformat))(
tt(hg) uses both a hash and a revision number to reference a specific
changeset in a repository. With this style you can format the revision
string (see tt(branchformat)) to include either or both. It's only
useful when tt(get-revision) is true. Note, the full 40-character revision id
is not available (except when using the tt(use-simple) option) because
executing hg more than once per prompt is too slow; you may customize this
behavior using hooks.
)
kindex(max-exports)
item(tt(max-exports))(
Defines the maximum number of
tt(vcs_info_msg_*_) variables tt(vcs_info) will set.
)
kindex(enable)
item(tt(enable))(
A list of backends you want to use. Checked in the tt(-init-) context. If
this list contains an item called tt(NONE) no backend is used at all and
tt(vcs_info) will do nothing. If this list contains tt(ALL), tt(vcs_info)
will use all known backends. Only with tt(ALL) in tt(enable) will the
tt(disable) style have any effect. tt(ALL) and tt(NONE) are case insensitive.
)
kindex(disable)
item(tt(disable))(
A list of VCSs you don't want tt(vcs_info) to test for
repositories (checked in the tt(-init-) context, too). Only used if
tt(enable) contains tt(ALL).
)
kindex(disable-patterns)
item(tt(disable-patterns))(
A list of patterns that are checked against tt($PWD). If a pattern
matches, tt(vcs_info) will be disabled. This style is checked in the
tt(:vcs_info:-init-:*:-all-) context.

Say, tt(~/.zsh) is a directory under version control, in which you do
not want tt(vcs_info) to be active, do:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "${+LPAR()b+RPAR()HOME}/.zsh+LPAR()|/*+RPAR()")
)
kindex(use-quilt)
item(tt(use-quilt))(
If enabled, the tt(quilt) support code is active in `addon' mode.
See ifzman(bf(Quilt Support))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Quilt Support)) for details.
)
kindex(quilt-standalone)
item(tt(quilt-standalone))(
If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS is active
in a given directory. See ifzman(bf(Quilt Support))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Quilt Support)) for details.
)
kindex(quilt-patch-dir)
item(tt(quilt-patch-dir))(
Overwrite the value of the tt($QUILT_PATCHES) environment variable. See
ifzman(bf(Quilt Support))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Quilt Support)) for details.
)
kindex(quiltcommand)
item(tt(quiltcommand))(
When tt(quilt) itself is called in quilt support, the value of this style
is used as the command name.
)
kindex(check-for-changes)
item(tt(check-for-changes))(
If enabled, this style causes the tt(%c) and tt(%u) format escapes to show
when the working directory has uncommitted changes. The strings displayed by
these escapes can be controlled via the tt(stagedstr) and tt(unstagedstr)
styles. The only backends that currently support this option are tt(git),
tt(hg), and tt(bzr) (the latter two only support unstaged).

For this style to be evaluated with the tt(hg) backend, the tt(get-revision)
style needs to be set and the tt(use-simple) style needs to be unset. The
latter is the default; the former is not.

With the tt(bzr) backend, em(lightweight checkouts) only honor this style if
the tt(use-server) style is set.

Note, the actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially expensive
(read: they may be slow, depending on how big the current repository is).
Therefore, it is disabled by default.
)
kindex(check-for-staged-changes)
item(tt(check-for-staged-changes))(
This style is like tt(check-for-changes), but it never checks the worktree
files, only the metadata in the tt(.${vcs}) dir.  Therefore,
this style initializes only the tt(%c) escape (with tt(stagedstr)) but
not the tt(%u) escape.  This style is faster than tt(check-for-changes).

In the tt(git) backend, this style checks for changes in the index.
Other backends do not currently implement this style.

This style is disabled by default.
)
kindex(stagedstr)
item(tt(stagedstr))(
This string will be used in the tt(%c) escape if there are staged changes in
the repository.
)
kindex(unstagedstr)
item(tt(unstagedstr))(
This string will be used in the tt(%u) escape if there are unstaged changes
in the repository.
)
kindex(command)
item(tt(command))(
This style causes tt(vcs_info) to use the supplied string as the command
to use as the VCS's binary. Note, that setting this in 'tt(:vcs_info:*)' is
not a good idea.

If the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the used binary
name is the name of the backend in use (e.g. tt(svn) is used in an tt(svn)
repository).

The tt(repo-root-name) part in the context is always the default tt(-all-)
when this style is looked up.

For example, this style can be used to use binaries from non-default
installation directories. Assume, tt(git) is installed in /usr/bin but
your sysadmin installed a newer version in /usr/local/bin. Instead of
changing the order of your tt($PATH) parameter, you can do this:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git)
)
kindex(use-server)
item(tt(use-server))(
This is used by the Perforce backend (tt(p4)) to decide if it should
contact the Perforce server to find out if a directory is managed
by Perforce.  This is the only reliable way of doing this, but runs
the risk of a delay if the server name cannot be found.  If the
server (more specifically, the tt(host)tt(:)tt(port) pair describing the
server) cannot be contacted, its name is put into the associative array
tt(vcs_info_p4_dead_servers) and is not contacted again during the session
until it is removed by hand.  If you do not set this style, the tt(p4)
backend is only usable if you have set the environment variable
tt(P4CONFIG) to a file name and have corresponding files in the root
directories of each Perforce client.  See comments in the function
tt(VCS_INFO_detect_p4) for more detail.

The Bazaar backend (tt(bzr)) uses this to permit contacting the server
about lightweight checkouts, see the tt(check-for-changes) style.
)
kindex(use-simple)
item(tt(use-simple))(
If there are two different ways of gathering
information, you can select the simpler one by setting this style to true;
the default is to use the not-that-simple code, which is potentially a lot
slower but might be more accurate in all possible cases. This style is
used by the tt(bzr), tt(hg), and tt(git) backends. In the case of tt(hg) it will invoke
the external hexdump program to parse the binary dirstate cache file; this
method will not return the local revision number.
)
kindex(get-revision)
item(tt(get-revision))(
If set to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile to figure out the revision of
a repository's work tree (currently for the tt(git) and tt(hg) backends,
where this kind of information is not always vital). For tt(git), the
hash value of the currently checked out commit is available via the tt(%i)
expansion. With tt(hg), the local revision number and the corresponding
global hash are available via tt(%i).
)
kindex(get-mq)
item(tt(get-mq))(
If set to true, the tt(hg) backend will look for a Mercurial Queue (tt(mq))
patch directory. Information will be available via the `tt(%m)' replacement.
)
kindex(get-bookmarks)
item(tt(get-bookmarks))(
If set to true, the tt(hg) backend will try to get a list of current
bookmarks. They will be available via the `tt(%m)' replacement.

The default is to generate a comma-separated list of all bookmark names
that refer to the currently checked out revision.  If a bookmark is active,
its name is suffixed an asterisk and placed first in the list.
)
kindex(use-prompt-escapes)
item(tt(use-prompt-escapes))(
Determines if we assume that the assembled
string from tt(vcs_info) includes prompt escapes. (Used by
tt(vcs_info_lastmsg).)
)
kindex(debug)
item(tt(debug))(
Enable debugging output to track possible problems. Currently this style
is only used by tt(vcs_info)'s hooks system.
)
kindex(hooks)
item(tt(hooks))(
A list style that defines hook-function names. See ifzman(bf(Hooks in vcs_info))\
ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Hooks))
below for details.
)
kindex(patch-format)
kindex(nopatch-format)
xitem(tt(patch-format))
item(tt(nopatch-format))(
This pair of styles format the patch information used by the tt(%m) expando in
formats and actionformats for the tt(git) and tt(hg) backends.  The value is
subject to certain tt(%)-expansions described below.
The expanded value is made available in the global tt(backend_misc) array as
tt(${backend_misc[patches]}) (also if a tt(set-patch-format) hook is used).
)
kindex(get-unapplied)
item(tt(get-unapplied))(
This boolean style controls whether a backend should attempt to gather a list
of unapplied patches (for example with Mercurial Queue patches).

Used by the tt(quilt), tt(hg), and tt(git) backends.
)
enditem()

The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(formats))(" (%s)-[%b]%u%c-")
sitem(tt(actionformats))(" (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-")
sitem(tt(branchformat))("%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg))
sitem(tt(nvcsformats))("")
sitem(tt(hgrevformat))("%r:%h")
sitem(tt(max-exports))(2)
sitem(tt(enable))(ALL)
sitem(tt(disable))((empty list))
sitem(tt(disable-patterns))((empty list))
sitem(tt(check-for-changes))(false)
sitem(tt(check-for-staged-changes))(false)
sitem(tt(stagedstr))((string: "S"))
sitem(tt(unstagedstr))((string: "U"))
sitem(tt(command))((empty string))
sitem(tt(use-server))(false)
sitem(tt(use-simple))(false)
sitem(tt(get-revision))(false)
sitem(tt(get-mq))(true)
sitem(tt(get-bookmarks))(false)
sitem(tt(use-prompt-escapes))(true)
sitem(tt(debug))(false)
sitem(tt(hooks))((empty list))
sitem(tt(use-quilt))(false)
sitem(tt(quilt-standalone))(false)
sitem(tt(quilt-patch-dir))(empty - use tt($QUILT_PATCHES))
sitem(tt(quiltcommand))(quilt)
sitem(tt(patch-format))(var(backend dependent))
sitem(tt(nopatch-format))(var(backend dependent))
sitem(tt(get-unapplied))(false)
endsitem()

In normal tt(formats) and tt(actionformats) the following replacements are
done:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(%s))(The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).)
sitem(tt(%b))(Information about the current branch.)
sitem(tt(%a))(An identifier that describes the action. Only makes sense in
tt(actionformats).)
sitem(tt(%i))(The current revision number or identifier. For tt(hg)
the tt(hgrevformat) style may be used to customize the output.)
sitem(tt(%c))(The string from the tt(stagedstr) style if there are staged
changes in the repository.)
sitem(tt(%u))(The string from the tt(unstagedstr) style if there are
unstaged changes in the repository.)
sitem(tt(%R))(The base directory of the repository.)
sitem(tt(%r))(The repository name. If tt(%R) is tt(/foo/bar/repoXY), tt(%r)
is tt(repoXY).)
sitem(tt(%S))(A subdirectory within a repository. If tt($PWD) is
tt(/foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty), tt(%S) is tt(beer/tasty).)
endsitem()
startitem()
item(tt(%m))(
A "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend to
decide what this replacement expands to.

The tt(hg) and tt(git) backends use this expando to display patch information.
tt(hg) sources patch information from the tt(mq) extensions; tt(git) from in-progress
tt(rebase) and tt(cherry-pick) operations and from the tt(stgit) extension.  The tt(patch-format)
and tt(nopatch-format) styles control the generated string.  The former is used
when at least one patch from the patch queue has been applied, and the latter
otherwise.

The tt(hg) backend displays bookmark information in this expando (in addition
to tt(mq) information).  See the tt(get-mq) and tt(get-bookmarks) styles.  Both
of these styles may be enabled at the same time.  If both are enabled, both
resulting strings will be shown separated by a semicolon (that cannot currently
be customized).

The tt(quilt) `standalone' backend sets this expando to the same value as the
tt(%Q) expando.
)
item(tt(%Q))(
Quilt series information.
When quilt is used (either in `addon' mode or as a `standalone' backend),
this expando is set to quilt series' tt(patch-format) string.
The tt(set-patch-format) hook and tt(nopatch-format) style are honoured.

See ifzman(tt(Quilt Support))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Quilt Support)) below for details.
)
enditem()

In tt(branchformat) these replacements are done:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(%b))(The branch name. For tt(hg), the branch name can include a
topic name.)
sitem(tt(%r))(The current revision number or the tt(hgrevformat) style for
tt(hg).)
endsitem()

In tt(hgrevformat) these replacements are done:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(%r))(The current local revision number.)
sitem(tt(%h))(The current global revision identifier.)
endsitem()

In tt(patch-format) and tt(nopatch-format) these replacements are done:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(%p))(The name of the top-most applied patch; may be overridden by the tt(applied-string) hook.)
sitem(tt(%u))(The number of unapplied patches; may be overridden by the tt(unapplied-string) hook.)
sitem(tt(%n))(The number of applied patches.)
sitem(tt(%c))(The number of unapplied patches.)
sitem(tt(%a))(The number of all patches (tt(%a = %n + %c)).)
sitem(tt(%g))(The names of active tt(mq) guards (tt(hg) backend).)
sitem(tt(%G))(The number of active tt(mq) guards (tt(hg) backend).)
endsitem()

Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For tt(nvcsformats)
no replacements are performed at all, it is just a string.

texinode(vcs_info Oddities)(vcs_info Quilt Support)(vcs_info Configuration)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Oddities)

If you want to use the tt(%b) (bold off) prompt expansion in tt(formats),
which expands tt(%b) itself, use tt(%%b). That will cause the tt(vcs_info)
expansion to replace tt(%%b) with tt(%b), so that zsh's prompt expansion
mechanism can handle it. Similarly, to hand down tt(%b) from
tt(branchformat), use tt(%%%%b). Sorry for this inconvenience, but it
cannot be easily avoided. Luckily we do not clash with a lot of prompt
expansions and this only needs to be done for those.

When one of the tt(gen-applied-string), tt(gen-unapplied-string), and
tt(set-patch-format) hooks is defined,
applying tt(%)-escaping (`tt(foo=${foo//'%'/%%})') to the interpolated values
for use in the prompt is the responsibility of those hooks (jointly);
when neither of those hooks is defined, tt(vcs_info) handles escaping by itself.
We regret this coupling, but it was required for backwards compatibility.

texinode(vcs_info Quilt Support)(vcs_info API)(vcs_info Oddities)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Quilt Support)

bf(Quilt) is not a version control system, therefore this is not implemented
as a backend. It can help keeping track of a series of patches. People use it
to keep a set of changes they want to use on top of software packages (which
is tightly integrated into the package build process - the Debian project
does this for a large number of packages). Quilt can also help individual
developers keep track of their own patches on top of real version control
systems.

The tt(vcs_info) integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by
having two slightly different modes of operation: `addon' mode and
`standalone' mode).

Quilt integration is off by default; to enable it, set the tt(use-quilt) style,
and add tt(%Q) to your tt(formats) or tt(actionformats) style:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' use-quilt true)

Styles looked up from the Quilt support code include `tt(.quilt-)var(quilt-mode)'
in the var(vcs-string) part of the context, where var(quilt-mode) is either
tt(addon) or tt(standalone).
Example: tt(:vcs_info:git.quilt-addon:default:)var(repo-root-name).

For `addon' mode to become active tt(vcs_info) must have already detected a
real version control system controlling the directory. If that is the case,
a directory that holds quilt's patches needs to be found. That directory is
configurable via the `tt(QUILT_PATCHES)' environment variable. If that
variable exists its value is used, otherwise the value `tt(patches)' is
assumed. The value from tt($QUILT_PATCHES) can be overwritten using the
`tt(quilt-patches)' style. (Note: you can use tt(vcs_info) to keep the value
of tt($QUILT_PATCHES) correct all the time via the tt(post-quilt) hook).

When the directory in question is found, quilt is assumed to be active. To
gather more information, tt(vcs_info) looks for a directory called `.pc';
Quilt uses that directory to track its current state. If this directory does
not exist we know that quilt has not done anything to the working directory
(read: no patches have been applied yet).

If patches are applied, tt(vcs_info) will try to find out which. If you want
to know which patches of a series are not yet applied, you need to activate
the tt(get-unapplied) style in the appropriate context.

tt(vcs_info) allows for very detailed control over how the gathered
information is presented (see 
ifzman(the bf(Configuration) and bf(Hooks in vcs_info) sections)\
ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Configuration) and noderef(vcs_info Hooks))),
all of which are documented below. Note there are a number of
other patch tracking systems that work on top of a certain version control
system (like tt(stgit) for bf(git), or tt(mq) for bf(hg)); the configuration
for systems like that are generally configured the same way as the bf(quilt)
support.

If the bf(quilt) support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string is
available as a simple format replacement (tt(%Q) to be precise), which can
be used in tt(formats) and tt(actionformats); see below for details).

If, on the other hand, the support code is working in `standalone' mode,
tt(vcs_info) will pretend as if tt(quilt) were an actual version control
system. That means that the version control system identifier (which
otherwise would be something like `svn' or `cvs') will be set to
`tt(-quilt-)'. This has implications on the used style context where this
identifier is the second element. tt(vcs_info) will have filled in a proper
value for the "repository's" root directory and the string containing the
information about quilt's state will be available as the `misc' replacement
(and tt(%Q) for compatibility with `addon' mode).

What is left to discuss is how `standalone' mode is detected. The detection
itself is a series of searches for directories. You can have this detection
enabled all the time in every directory that is not otherwise under version
control. If you know there is only a limited set of trees where you would
like tt(vcs_info) to try and look for Quilt in `standalone' mode to minimise
the amount of searching on every call to tt(vcs_info), there are a number of
ways to do that:

Essentially, `standalone' mode detection is controlled by a style called
`tt(quilt-standalone)'. It is a string style and its value can have different
effects. The simplest values are: `tt(always)' to run detection every time
tt(vcs_info) is run, and `tt(never)' to turn the detection off entirely.

If the value of tt(quilt-standalone) is something else, it is interpreted
differently. If the value is the name of a scalar variable the value of that
variable is checked and that value is used in the same `always'/`never' way
as described above.

If the value of tt(quilt-standalone) is an array, the elements of that array
are used as directory names under which you want the detection to be active.

If tt(quilt-standalone) is an associative array, the keys are taken as
directory names under which you want the detection to be active, but only if
the corresponding value is the string `tt(true)'.

Last, but not least, if the value of tt(quilt-standalone) is the name of a
function, the function is called without arguments and the return value
decides whether detection should be active. A `0' return value is true; a
non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

Note, if there is both a function and a variable by the name of
tt(quilt-standalone), the function will take precedence.


texinode(vcs_info API)(vcs_info Variables)(vcs_info Quilt Support)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Function Descriptions (Public API))

startitem()
findex(vcs_info)
item(tt(vcs_info) [var(user-context)])(
The main function, that runs all backends and assembles all data into
tt(${vcs_info_msg_*_}). This is the function you want to call from
tt(precmd) if you want to include up-to-date information in your prompt (see
ifzman(bf(Variable Description))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Variables))
below).  If an argument is given, that string will be
used instead of tt(default) in the var(user-context) field of the style
context.
)
findex(vcs_info_hookadd)
item(tt(vcs_info_hookadd))(
Statically registers a number of functions to a given hook. The hook needs
to be given as the first argument; what follows is a list of hook-function
names to register to the hook. The `tt(+vi-)' prefix needs to be left out
here. See ifzman(bf(Hooks in vcs_info))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Hooks))
below for details.
)
findex(vcs_info_hookdel)
item(tt(vcs_info_hookdel))(
Remove hook-functions from a given hook. The hook needs to be given as the
first non-option argument; what follows is a list of hook-function
names to un-register from the hook. If `tt(-a)' is used as the first
argument, tt(all) occurrences of the functions are unregistered. Otherwise
only the last occurrence is removed (if a function was registered to a hook
more than once). The `tt(+vi-)' prefix needs to be left out here.
See ifzman(bf(Hooks in vcs_info))ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Hooks))
below for details.
)
findex(vcs_info_lastmsg)
item(tt(vcs_info_lastmsg))(
Outputs the current values of tt(${vcs_info_msg_*_}).
Takes into account the value of the tt(use-prompt-escapes) style in
tt(':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'). It also only prints tt(max-exports)
values.
)
findex(vcs_info_printsys)
item(tt(vcs_info_printsys) [var(user-context)])(
Prints a list of all
supported version control systems. Useful to find out possible contexts
(and which of them are enabled) or values for the tt(disable) style.
)
findex(vcs_info_setsys)
item(tt(vcs_info_setsys))(
Initializes tt(vcs_info)'s internal list of
available backends. With this function, you can add support for new VCSs
without restarting the shell.
)
enditem()

All functions named tt(VCS_INFO_*) are for internal use only.

texinode(vcs_info Variables)(vcs_info Hooks)(vcs_info API)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Variable Description)

startitem()
item(tt(${vcs_info_msg_)var(N)tt(_}) (Note the trailing underscore))(
Where var(N) is an integer, e.g., tt(vcs_info_msg_0_). These variables
are the storage for the informational message the last tt(vcs_info) call
has assembled. These are strongly connected to the tt(formats),
tt(actionformats) and tt(nvcsformats) styles described above. Those styles
are lists. The first member of that list gets expanded into
tt(${vcs_info_msg_0_}), the second into tt(${vcs_info_msg_1_})
and the Nth into tt(${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}). (See the tt(max-exports)
style above.)
)
enditem()

All variables named tt(VCS_INFO_*) are for internal use only.

texinode(vcs_info Hooks)(vcs_info Examples)(vcs_info Variables)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Hooks in vcs_info)

Hooks are places in tt(vcs_info) where you can run your own code. That
code can communicate with the code that called it and through that,
change the system's behaviour.

For configuration, hooks change the style context:
example(:vcs_info:var(vcs-string)PLUS()var(hook-name):var(user-context):var(repo-root-name))

To register functions to a hook, you need to list them in the tt(hooks)
style in the appropriate context.

Example:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz)

This registers functions to the hook `foo' for all backends. In order to
avoid namespace problems, all registered function names are prepended by
a `tt(+vi-)', so the actual functions called for the `foo' hook are
`tt(+vi-bar)' and `tt(+vi-baz)'.

If you would like to register a function to a hook regardless of the
current context, you may use the tt(vcs_info_hookadd) function. To remove
a function that was added like that, the tt(vcs_info_hookdel) function
can be used.

If something seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean style in
the proper context and the hook-calling code will print what it tried
to execute and whether the function in question existed.

When you register more than one function to a hook, all functions are
executed one after another until one function returns non-zero or until
all functions have been called. Context-sensitive hook functions are
executed tt(before) statically registered ones (the ones added by
tt(vcs_info_hookadd)).

You may pass data between functions via an associative array, tt(user_data).
For example:
example(
+vi-git-myfirsthook+LPAR()RPAR(){
    user_data[myval]=$myval
}
+vi-git-mysecondhook+LPAR()RPAR(){
    # do something with ${user_data[myval]}
})

There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

startitem()
item(tt(ret))(
The return value that the hooks system will return to the caller. The
default is an integer `zero'. If and how a changed tt(ret) value changes
the execution of the caller depends on the specific hook. See the hook
documentation below for details.
)
item(tt(hook_com))(
An associated array which is used for bidirectional communication from
the caller to hook functions. The used keys depend on the specific hook.
)
item(tt(context))(
The active context of the hook. Functions that wish to change this
variable should make it local scope first.
)
item(tt(vcs))(
The current VCS after it was detected. The same values as in the
enable/disable style are used. Available in all hooks except tt(start-up).
)
enditem()

Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

startitem()
item(tt(start-up))(
Called after starting tt(vcs_info) but before the VCS in this directory is
determined. It can be used to deactivate tt(vcs_info) temporarily if
necessary. When tt(ret) is set to tt(1), tt(vcs_info) aborts and does
nothing; when set to tt(2), tt(vcs_info) sets up everything as if no
version control were active and exits.
)
item(tt(pre-get-data))(
Same as tt(start-up) but after the VCS was detected.
)
item(tt(gen-hg-bookmark-string))(
Called in the Mercurial backend when a bookmark string is generated; the
tt(get-revision) and tt(get-bookmarks) styles must be true.

This hook gets the names of the Mercurial bookmarks that
tt(vcs_info) collected from `hg'.

If a bookmark is active, the key tt(${hook_com[hg-active-bookmark]}) is
set to its name.  The key is otherwise unset.

When setting tt(ret) to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]}) will be used in the tt(%m) escape in
tt(formats) and tt(actionformats) and will be available in the global
tt(backend_misc) array as tt(${backend_misc[bookmarks]}).
)
item(tt(gen-applied-string))(
Called in the tt(git) (with tt(stgit) or during rebase or merge), and tt(hg)
(with tt(mq)) backends and in tt(quilt) support when the tt(applied-string)
is generated; the tt(use-quilt) zstyle must be true for tt(quilt) (the tt(mq)
and tt(stgit) backends are active by default).

This hook gets the names of all applied patches which tt(vcs_info) collected
so far in the opposite order, which means that the first argument is the
top-most patch and so forth.

When setting tt(ret) to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[applied-string]}) will be
available as tt(%p) in the tt(patch-format) and tt(nopatch-format) styles.
This hook is, in concert with tt(set-patch-format), responsible for
tt(%)-escaping that value for use in the prompt.
(See ifzman(the bf(Oddities) section)ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Oddities)).)
)
item(tt(gen-unapplied-string))(
Called in the tt(git) (with tt(stgit) or during rebase), and tt(hg) (with
tt(mq)) backend and in tt(quilt) support when the tt(unapplied-string) is
generated; the tt(get-unapplied) style must be true.

This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which tt(vcs_info)
collected so far in order, which means that the first argument is
the patch next-in-line to be applied and so forth.

When setting tt(ret) to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[unapplied-string]}) will be available as tt(%u) in the
tt(patch-format) and tt(nopatch-format) styles.
This hook is, in concert with tt(set-patch-format), responsible for
tt(%)-escaping that value for use in the prompt.
(See ifzman(the bf(Oddities) section)ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Oddities)).)
)
item(tt(gen-mqguards-string))(
Called in the tt(hg) backend when tt(guards-string) is generated; the
tt(get-mq) style must be true (default).

This hook gets the names of any active tt(mq) guards.

When setting tt(ret) to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[guards-string]}) will be used in the tt(%g) escape in the
tt(patch-format) and tt(nopatch-format) styles.
)
item(tt(no-vcs))(
This hooks is called when no version control system was detected.

The `tt(hook_com)' parameter is not used.
)
item(tt(post-backend))(
Called as soon as the backend has finished collecting information.

The `tt(hook_com)' keys available are as for the tt(set-message) hook.
)
item(tt(post-quilt))(
Called after the tt(quilt) support is done. The following information
is passed as arguments to the hook: 1. the quilt-support mode (`addon' or
`standalone'); 2. the directory that contains the patch series; 3. the
directory that holds quilt's status information (the `.pc' directory) or
the string tt("-nopc-") if that directory wasn't found.

The `hook_com' parameter is not used.
)
item(tt(set-branch-format))(
Called before `tt(branchformat)' is set. The only argument to the
hook is the format that is configured at this point.

The `tt(hook_com)' keys considered are `tt(branch)' and `tt(revision)'.
They are set to the values figured out so far by tt(vcs_info) and any
change will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

If tt(ret) is set to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[branch-replace]}) will be used unchanged as the
`tt(%b)' replacement in the variables set by tt(vcs_info).
)
item(tt(set-hgrev-format))(
Called before a `tt(hgrevformat)' is set. The only argument to the
hook is the format that is configured at this point.

The `tt(hook_com)' keys considered are `tt(hash)' and `tt(localrev)'.
They are set to the values figured out so far by tt(vcs_info) and any
change will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

If tt(ret) is set to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[rev-replace]}) will be used unchanged as the
`tt(%i)' replacement in the variables set by tt(vcs_info).
)
item(tt(pre-addon-quilt))(
This hook is used when tt(vcs_info)'s quilt functionality is active in "addon"
mode (quilt used on top of a real version control system). It is activated
right before any quilt specific action is taken.

Setting the `tt(ret)' variable in this hook to a non-zero value avoids any
quilt specific actions from being run at all.
)
item(tt(set-patch-format))(
This hook is used to control some of the possible expansions in
tt(patch-format) and tt(nopatch-format) styles with patch queue systems such as
quilt, mqueue and the like.

This hook is used in the tt(git), tt(hg) and tt(quilt) backends.

The hook allows the control of the tt(%p) (tt(${hook_com[applied]})) and tt(%u)
(tt(${hook_com[unapplied]})) expansion in all backends that use the hook. With
the mercurial backend, the tt(%g) (tt(${hook_com[guards]})) expansion is
controllable in addition to that.

If tt(ret) is set to non-zero, the string in tt(${hook_com[patch-replace]})
will be used unchanged instead of an expanded format from tt(patch-format) or
tt(nopatch-format).

This hook is, in concert with the tt(gen-applied-string) or
tt(gen-unapplied-string) hooks if they are defined, responsible for
tt(%)-escaping the final tt(patch-format) value for use in the prompt.
(See ifzman(the bf(Oddities) section)ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Oddities)).)
)
item(tt(set-message))(
Called each time before a `tt(vcs_info_msg_)var(N)tt(_)' message is set.
It takes two arguments; the first being the `var(N)' in the message
variable name, the second is the currently configured tt(formats) or
tt(actionformats).

There are a number of `tt(hook_com)' keys, that are used here:
`tt(action)', `tt(branch)', `tt(base)', `tt(base-name)', `tt(subdir)',
`tt(staged)', `tt(unstaged)', `tt(revision)', `tt(misc)', `tt(vcs)'
and one `tt(miscN)' entry for each backend-specific data field (tt(N)
starting at zero). They are set to the values figured out so far by
tt(vcs_info) and any change will be used directly when the actual
replacement is done.

Since this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each configured
tt(formats) or tt(actionformats)), each of the `tt(hook_com)' keys mentioned
above (except for the tt(miscN) entries) has an `tt(_orig)' counterpart,
so even if you changed a value to your liking you can still get the
original value in the next run. Changing the `tt(_orig)' values is
probably not a good idea.

If tt(ret) is set to non-zero, the string in
tt(${hook_com[message]}) will be used unchanged as the message by
tt(vcs_info).
)
enditem()

If all of this sounds rather confusing, take a look at
ifzman(the bf(Examples) section below)ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Examples))
and also in the tt(Misc/vcs_info-examples) file in the Zsh source.
They contain some explanatory code.

texinode(vcs_info Examples)()(vcs_info Hooks)(Version Control Information)
subsect(Examples)

Don't use tt(vcs_info) at all (even though it's in your prompt):
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE)

Disable the backends for tt(bzr) and tt(svk):
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk)

Disable everything em(but) tt(bzr) and tt(svk):
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk)

Provide a special formats for tt(git):
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]')

All tt(%x) expansion in all sorts of formats (tt(formats), tt(actionformats),
tt(branchformat), you name it) are done using the `tt(zformat)' builtin from
the `tt(zsh/zutil)' module. That means you can do everything with these
tt(%x) items what zformat supports. In particular, if you want something
that is really long to have a fixed width, like a hash in a mercurial
branchformat, you can do this: tt(%12.12i). That'll shrink the 40 character
hash to its 12 leading characters. The form is actually
`tt(%)var(min)tt(.)var(max)tt(x)'. More is possible.
See ifzman(the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/zutil Module)) for details.

Use the quicker tt(bzr) backend
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true)

If you do use tt(use-simple), please report if it does `the-right-thing[tm]'.

Display the revision number in yellow for tt(bzr) and tt(svn):
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' \ 
       branchformat '%b%%F{yellow}:%r')

The doubled percent sign is explained in
ifzman(the bf(Oddities) section)ifnzman(noderef(vcs_info Oddities)).

Alternatively, one can use the raw colour codes directly:

example(zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' \ 
       branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r')

Normally when a variable is interpolated into a format string, the variable
needs to be tt(%)-escaped. In this example we skipped that because we assume
the value of tt(${fg[yellow]}) doesn't contain any tt(%) signs.

Make sure you enclose the color codes in tt(%{)var(...)tt(%})
if you want to use the string provided by tt(vcs_info) in prompts.

Here is how to print the VCS information as a command (not in a prompt):
example(vcsi+LPAR()+RPAR() { vcs_info interactive; vcs_info_lastmsg })

This way, you can even define different formats for output via
tt(vcs_info_lastmsg) in the 'tt(:vcs_info:*:interactive:*)' namespace.

Now as promised, some code that uses hooks:
say, you'd like to replace the string `svn' by `subversion' in
tt(vcs_info)'s tt(%s) tt(formats) replacement.

First, we will tell tt(vcs_info) to call a function when populating
the message variables with the gathered information:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion)

Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual
function yet. To see what the hooks subsystem is trying to do, enable the
`tt(debug)' style:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true)

That should give you an idea what is going on. Specifically, the function
that we are looking for is `tt(+vi-svn2subversion)'. Note, the `tt(+vi-)'
prefix. So, everything is in order, just as documented. When you are done
checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false)

Now, let's define the function:
example(
function +vi-svn2subversion+LPAR()RPAR() {
    [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion
})

Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had
registered our function in a less generic context. If we do it only in
the `tt(svn)' backend's context, we don't need to test which the active
backend is:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion)
example(
function +vi-svn2subversion+LPAR()RPAR() {
    hook_com[vcs]=subversion
})

And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create
a customised bookmark string for the tt(hg) backend.

Again, we start off by registering a function:
example(zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks)

And then we define the `tt(+vi-hgbookmarks)' function:
example(
function +vi-hgbookmarks+LPAR()RPAR() {
    # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
    # commas. This mixes things up a little.
    # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
    # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
    # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
    # (because your initials are sh, for example).
    # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
    # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
    # concatenates them using commas.
    # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
    # the function's positional parameters.
    local s="${(Mj:,:)@:#sh/*}"
    # Now, the communication with the code that calls
    # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
    # hash. The key at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
    # hook looks is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
    hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]=$s
    # And to signal that we want to use the string we
    # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
    # something other than the default zero:
    ret=1
    return 0
})

Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are available in
the examples file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the Zsh source
directory.

This concludes our guided tour through zsh's tt(vcs_info).


texinode(Prompt Themes)(ZLE Functions)(Version Control Information)(User Contributions)
sect(Prompt Themes)

subsect(Installation)

You should make sure all the functions from the tt(Functions/Prompts)
directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with
the string `tt(prompt_)' except for the special function`tt(promptinit)'.
You also need the `tt(colors)' and `tt(add-zsh-hook)' functions from
tt(Functions/Misc).
All these functions may already be installed on your system; if not,
you will need to find them and copy them.  The directory should appear as
one of the elements of the tt(fpath) array (this should already be the
case if they were installed), and at least the function tt(promptinit)
should be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize
the use of the system you need to call the tt(promptinit) function.  The
following code in your tt(.zshrc) will arrange for this; assume the
functions are stored in the directory tt(~/myfns):

example(fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
autoload -U promptinit
promptinit)

subsect(Theme Selection)

Use the tt(prompt) command to select your preferred theme.  This command
may be added to your tt(.zshrc) following the call to tt(promptinit) in
order to start zsh with a theme already selected.

startitem()
xitem(tt(prompt) [ tt(-c) | tt(-l) ])
xitem(tt(prompt) [ tt(-p) | tt(-h) ] [ var(theme) ... ])
item(tt(prompt) [ tt(-s) ] var(theme) [ var(arg) ... ])(
Set or examine the prompt theme.  With no options and a var(theme)
argument, the theme with that name is set as the current theme.  The
available themes are determined at run time; use the tt(-l) option to see
a list.  The special var(theme) `tt(random)' selects at random one of the
available themes and sets your prompt to that.

In some cases the var(theme) may be modified by one or more arguments,
which should be given after the theme name.  See the help for each theme
for descriptions of these arguments.

Options are:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(-c))(Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if any.)
sitem(tt(-l))(List all available prompt themes.)
sitem(tt(-p))(Preview the theme named by var(theme), or all themes if no
var(theme) is given.)
sitem(tt(-h))(Show help for the theme named by var(theme), or for the
tt(prompt) function if no var(theme) is given.)
sitem(tt(-s))(Set var(theme) as the current theme and save state.)
endsitem()
)
item(tt(prompt_)var(theme)tt(_setup))(
Each available var(theme) has a setup function which is called by the
tt(prompt) function to install that theme.  This function may define
other functions as necessary to maintain the prompt, including functions
used to preview the prompt or provide help for its use.  You should not
normally call a theme's setup function directly.
)
enditem()

subsect(Utility Themes)

startitem()
item(tt(prompt off))(
The theme `tt(off)' sets all the prompt variables to minimal values with
no special effects.
)
item(tt(prompt default))(
The theme `tt(default)' sets all prompt variables to the same state as
if an interactive zsh was started with no initialization files.
)
item(tt(prompt restore))(
The special theme `tt(restore)' erases all theme settings and sets prompt
variables to their state before the first time the `tt(prompt)' function
was run, provided each theme has properly defined its cleanup (see below).

Note that you can undo `tt(prompt off)' and `tt(prompt default)' with
`tt(prompt restore)', but a second restore does not undo the first.
)
enditem()

subsect(Writing Themes)

The first step for adding your own theme is to choose a name for it,
and create a file `tt(prompt_var(name)_setup)' in a directory in your
tt(fpath), such as tt(~/myfns) in the example above.  The file should
at minimum contain assignments for the prompt variables that your
theme wishes to modify.  By convention, themes use tt(PS1), tt(PS2),
tt(RPS1), etc., rather than the longer tt(PROMPT) and tt(RPROMPT).

The file is autoloaded as a function in the current shell context, so
it may contain any necessary commands to customize your theme, including
defining additional functions.  To make some complex tasks easier, your
setup function may also do any of the following:

startitem()
item(Assign tt(prompt_opts))(
The array tt(prompt_opts) may be assigned any of tt("bang"), tt("cr"),
tt("percent"), tt("sp"), and/or tt("subst") as values.  The corresponding
setopts (tt(promptbang), etc.) are turned on, all other prompt-related
options are turned off.  The tt(prompt_opts) array preserves setopts even
beyond the scope of tt(localoptions), should your function need that.
)
item(Modify precmd and preexec)(
Use of tt(add-zsh-hook) is recommended.  The tt(precmd) and tt(preexec)
hooks are automatically adjusted if the prompt theme changes or is
disabled.
)
item(Declare cleanup)(
If your function makes any other changes that should be undone when the
theme is disabled, your setup function may call

example(prompt_cleanup var(command))

where var(command) should be suitably quoted.  If your theme is ever
disabled or replaced by another, var(command) is executed with tt(eval).
You may declare more than one such cleanup hook.
)
item(Define preview)(
Define or autoload a function tt(prompt_)var(name)tt(_preview) to display
a simulated version of your prompt.  A simple default previewer is
defined by tt(promptinit) for themes that do not define their own.
This preview function is called by `tt(prompt -p)'.
)
item(Provide help)(
Define or autoload a function tt(prompt_)var(name)tt(_help) to display
documentation or help text for your theme.
This help function is called by `tt(prompt -h)'.
)
enditem()

texinode(ZLE Functions)(Exception Handling)(Prompt Themes)(User Contributions)
sect(ZLE Functions)

subsect(Widgets)

These functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see
ifzman(zmanref(zshzle))\
ifnzman(noderef(Zsh Line Editor))\
) which can be bound to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To use them,
your tt(.zshrc) should contain lines of the form

example(autoload var(function)
zle -N var(function))

followed by an appropriate tt(bindkey) command to associate the function
with a key sequence.  Suggested bindings are described below.

startitem()
item(bash-style word functions)(
If you are looking for functions to implement moving over and editing
words in the manner of bash, where only alphanumeric characters are
considered word characters, you can use the functions described in
the next section.  The following is sufficient:

example(autoload -U select-word-style
select-word-style bash)

)
tindex(forward-word-match)
tindex(backward-word-match)
tindex(kill-word-match)
tindex(backward-kill-word-match)
tindex(transpose-words-match)
tindex(capitalize-word-match)
tindex(up-case-word-match)
tindex(down-case-word-match)
tindex(delete-whole-word-match)
tindex(select-word-match)
tindex(select-word-style)
tindex(match-word-context)
tindex(match-words-by-style)
xitem(tt(forward-word-match), tt(backward-word-match))
xitem(tt(kill-word-match), tt(backward-kill-word-match))
xitem(tt(transpose-words-match), tt(capitalize-word-match))
xitem(tt(up-case-word-match), tt(down-case-word-match))
xitem(tt(delete-whole-word-match), tt(select-word-match))
item(tt(select-word-style), tt(match-word-context), tt(match-words-by-style))(
The first eight `tt(-match)' functions are drop-in replacements for the
builtin widgets without the suffix.  By default they behave in a similar
way.  However, by the use of styles and the function tt(select-word-style),
the way words are matched can be altered. tt(select-word-match) is intended
to be used as a text object in vi mode but with custom word styles. For
comparison, the widgets described in ifzman(zmanref(zshzle) under Text Objects)\
ifnzman(noderef(Text Objects)) use fixed definitions of words, compatible
with the tt(vim) editor.

The simplest way of configuring the functions is to use
tt(select-word-style), which can either be called as a normal function with
the appropriate argument, or invoked as a user-defined widget that will
prompt for the first character of the word style to be used.  The first
time it is invoked, the first eight tt(-match) functions will automatically
replace the builtin versions, so they do not need to be loaded explicitly.

The word styles available are as follows.  Only the first character
is examined.

startitem()
item(tt(bash))(
Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.
)
item(tt(normal))(
As in normal shell operation:  word characters are alphanumeric characters
plus any characters present in the string given by the parameter
tt($WORDCHARS).
)
item(tt(shell))(
Words are complete shell command arguments, possibly including complete
quoted strings, or any tokens special to the shell.
)
item(tt(whitespace))(
Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.
)
item(tt(default))(
Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as `tt(normal)'.
)
enditem()

All but `tt(default)' can be input as an upper case character, which has
the same effect but with subword matching turned on.  In this case, words
with upper case characters are treated specially: each separate run of
upper case characters, or an upper case character followed by any number of
other characters, is considered a word.  The style tt(subword-range)
can supply an alternative character range to the default `tt([:upper:])';
the value of the style is treated as the contents of a `tt([)var(...)tt(])'
pattern (note that the outer brackets should not be supplied, only
those surrounding named ranges).

More control can be obtained using the tt(zstyle) command, as described in
ifzman(zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/zutil Module)).  Each style is looked up in the
context tt(:zle:)var(widget) where var(widget) is the name of the
user-defined widget, not the name of the function implementing it, so in
the case of the definitions supplied by tt(select-word-style) the
appropriate contexts are tt(:zle:forward-word), and so on.  The function
tt(select-word-style) itself always defines styles for the context
`tt(:zle:*)' which can be overridden by more specific (longer) patterns as
well as explicit contexts.

The style tt(word-style) specifies the rules to use.  This may have the
following values.

startitem()
item(tt(normal))(
Use the standard shell rules, i.e. alphanumerics and tt($WORDCHARS), unless
overridden by the styles tt(word-chars) or tt(word-class).
)
item(tt(specified))(
Similar to tt(normal), but em(only) the specified characters, and not also
alphanumerics, are considered word characters.
)
item(tt(unspecified))(
The negation of specified.  The given characters are those which will
em(not) be considered part of a word.
)
item(tt(shell))(
Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for generating shell
command arguments.  In addition, special tokens which are never command
arguments such as `tt(())' are also treated as words.
)
item(tt(whitespace))(
Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.
)
enditem()

The first three of those rules usually use tt($WORDCHARS), but the value
in the parameter can be overridden by the style tt(word-chars), which works
in exactly the same way as tt($WORDCHARS).  In addition, the style
tt(word-class) uses character class syntax to group characters and takes
precedence over tt(word-chars) if both are set.  The tt(word-class) style
does not include the surrounding brackets of the character class; for
example, `tt(-:[:alnum:])' is a valid tt(word-class) to include all
alphanumerics plus the characters `tt(-)' and `tt(:)'.  Be careful
including `tt(])', `tt(^)' and `tt(-)' as these are special inside
character classes.

tt(word-style) may also have `tt(-subword)' appended to its value to
turn on subword matching, as described above.

The style tt(skip-chars) is mostly useful for
tt(transpose-words) and similar functions.  If set, it gives a count of
characters starting at the cursor position which will not be considered
part of the word and are treated as space, regardless of what they actually
are.  For example, if

example(zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1)

has been set, and tt(transpose-words-match) is called with the cursor on
the var(X) of tt(foo)var(X)tt(bar), where var(X) can be any character, then
the resulting expression is tt(bar)var(X)tt(foo).

Finer grained control can be obtained by setting the style tt(word-context)
to an array of pairs of entries.  Each pair of entries consists of a
var(pattern) and a var(subcontext).  The shell argument the cursor is on is
matched against each var(pattern) in turn until one matches; if it does,
the context is extended by a colon and the corresponding var(subcontext).
Note that the test is made against the original word on the line, with no
stripping of quotes.  Special handling is done between words: the current
context is examined and if it contains the string tt(between) the word
is set to a single space; else if it is contains the string tt(back),
the word before the cursor is considered, else the word after cursor is
considered. Some examples are given below.

The style tt(skip-whitespace-first) is only used with the
tt(forward-word) widget.  If it is set to true, then tt(forward-word)
skips any non-word-characters, followed by any non-word-characters:
this is similar to the behaviour of other word-orientated widgets,
and also that used by other editors, however it differs from the
standard zsh behaviour.  When using tt(select-word-style) the widget
is set in the context tt(:zle:*) to tt(true) if the word style is
tt(bash) and tt(false) otherwise.  It may be overridden by setting it in
the more specific context tt(:zle:forward-word*).

It is possible to create widgets with specific behaviour by defining
a new widget implemented by the appropriate generic function, then
setting a style for the context of the specific widget.  For example,
the following defines a widget tt(backward-kill-space-word) using
tt(backward-kill-word-match), the generic widget implementing
tt(backward-kill-word) behaviour, and ensures that the new widget
always implements space-delimited behaviour.

example(zle -N backward-kill-space-word backward-kill-word-match
zstyle :zle:backward-kill-space-word word-style space)

The widget tt(backward-kill-space-word) can now be bound to a key.

Here are some further examples of use of the styles, actually taken from the
simplified interface in tt(select-word-style):

example(zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars '')

Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets, i.e. only
alphanumerics are word characters; equivalent to setting
the parameter tt(WORDCHARS) empty for the given context.

example(style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space)

Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word `kill' in the name.
Neither of the styles tt(word-chars) nor tt(word-class) is used in this case.

Here are some examples of use of the tt(word-context) style to extend
the context.

example(zstyle ':zle:*' word-context \ 
       "*/*" filename "[[:space:]]" whitespace
zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars '')

This provides two different ways of using tt(transpose-words) depending on
whether the cursor is on whitespace between words or on a filename, here
any word containing a tt(/).  On whitespace, complete arguments as defined
by standard shell rules will be transposed.  In a filename, only
alphanumerics will be transposed.  Elsewhere, words will be transposed
using the default style for tt(:zle:transpose-words).

The word matching and all the handling of tt(zstyle) settings is actually
implemented by the function tt(match-words-by-style).  This can be used to
create new user-defined widgets.  The calling function should set the local
parameter tt(curcontext) to tt(:zle:)var(widget), create the local
parameter tt(matched_words) and call tt(match-words-by-style) with no
arguments.  On return, tt(matched_words) will be set to an array with the
elements: (1) the start of the line (2) the word before the cursor (3) any
non-word characters between that word and the cursor (4) any non-word
character at the cursor position plus any remaining non-word characters
before the next word, including all characters specified by the
tt(skip-chars) style, (5) the word at or following the cursor (6) any
non-word characters following that word (7) the remainder of the line.  Any
of the elements may be an empty string; the calling function should test
for this to decide whether it can perform its function.

If the variable tt(matched_words) is defined by the caller to
tt(match-words-by-style) as an associative array (tt(local -A
matched_words)), then the seven values given above should be retrieved
from it as elements named tt(start), tt(word-before-cursor),
tt(ws-before-cursor), tt(ws-after-cursor), tt(word-after-cursor),
tt(ws-after-word), and tt(end).  In addition the element
tt(is-word-start) is 1 if the cursor is on the start of a word or
subword, or on white space before it (the cases can be distinguished by
testing the tt(ws-after-cursor) element) and 0 otherwise.  This form is
recommended for future compatibility.

It is possible to pass options with arguments to tt(match-words-by-style)
to override the use of styles.  The options are:
startsitem()
sitem(tt(-w))(var(word-style))
sitem(tt(-s))(var(skip-chars))
sitem(tt(-c))(var(word-class))
sitem(tt(-C))(var(word-chars))
sitem(tt(-r))(var(subword-range))
endsitem()

For example, tt(match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0) may be used to
extract the command argument around the cursor.

The tt(word-context) style is implemented by the function
tt(match-word-context).  This should not usually need to be called
directly.
)
tindex(bracketed-paste-magic)
item(tt(bracketed-paste-magic))(
The tt(bracketed-paste) widget (see ifzman(subsection Miscellaneous in
zmanref(zshzle))ifnzman(noderef(Miscellaneous) in noderef(Zle Widgets)))
inserts pasted text literally into the editor buffer rather than interpret
it as keystrokes.  This disables some common usages where the self-insert
widget is replaced in order to accomplish some extra processing.  An
example is the contributed tt(url-quote-magic) widget described below.

The tt(bracketed-paste-magic) widget is meant to replace tt(bracketed-paste)
with a wrapper that re-enables these self-insert actions, and other
actions as selected by zstyles.  Therefore this widget is installed with
ifzman()
example(autoload -Uz bracketed-paste-magic
zle -N bracketed-paste bracketed-paste-magic)

Other than enabling some widget processing, tt(bracketed-paste-magic)
attempts to replicate tt(bracketed-paste) as faithfully as possible.

The following zstyles may be set to control processing of pasted text.
All are looked up in the context `tt(:bracketed-paste-magic)'.

startitem()
item(tt(active-widgets))(
A list of patterns matching widget names that should be activated during
the paste.  All other key sequences are processed as self-insert-unmeta.
The default is `tt(self-*)' so any user-defined widgets named with that
prefix are active along with the builtin self-insert.

If this style is not set (explicitly deleted) or set to an empty value,
no widgets are active and the pasted text is inserted literally.  If the
value includes `tt(undefined-key)', any unknown sequences are discarded
from the pasted text.
)
item(tt(inactive-keys))(
The inverse of tt(active-widgets), a list of key sequences that always use
tt(self-insert-unmeta) even when bound to an active widget.  Note that
this is a list of literal key sequences, not patterns.
)
item(tt(paste-init))(
A list of function names, called in widget context (but not as widgets).
The functions are called in order until one of them returns a non-zero
status.  The parameter `tt(PASTED)' contains the initial state of the
pasted text.  All other ZLE parameters such as `tt(BUFFER)' have their
normal values and side-effects, and full history is available, so for
example tt(paste-init) functions may move words from tt(BUFFER) into
tt(PASTED) to make those words visible to the tt(active-widgets).

A non-zero return from a tt(paste-init) function does em(not) prevent the
paste itself from proceeding.

Loading tt(bracketed-paste-magic) defines tt(backward-extend-paste), a
helper function for use in tt(paste-init).

example(zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-init \ 
       backward-extend-paste)

When a paste would insert into the middle of a word or append text to a
word already on the line, tt(backward-extend-paste) moves the prefix
from tt(LBUFFER) into tt(PASTED) so that the tt(active-widgets) see the
full word so far.  This may be useful with tt(url-quote-magic).
)
item(tt(paste-finish))(
Another list of function names called in order until one returns non-zero.
These functions are called em(after) the pasted text has been processed
by the tt(active-widgets), but em(before) it is inserted into `tt(BUFFER)'.
ZLE parameters have their normal values and side-effects.

A non-zero return from a tt(paste-finish) function does em(not) prevent
the paste itself from proceeding.

Loading tt(bracketed-paste-magic) also defines tt(quote-paste), a helper
function for use in tt(paste-finish).

example(zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-finish \ 
       quote-paste
zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \ 
       qqq)

When the pasted text is inserted into tt(BUFFER), it is quoted per the
tt(quote-style) value.  To forcibly turn off the built-in numeric prefix
quoting of tt(bracketed-paste), use:

example(zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \ 
       none)
)
enditem()

em(Important:) During tt(active-widgets) processing of the paste (after
tt(paste-init) and before tt(paste-finish)), tt(BUFFER) starts empty and
history is restricted, so cursor motions, etc., may not pass outside of
the pasted content.  Text assigned to tt(BUFFER) by the active widgets
is copied back into tt(PASTED) before tt(paste-finish).
)
tindex(copy-earlier-word)
item(tt(copy-earlier-word))(
This widget works like a combination of tt(insert-last-word) and
tt(copy-prev-shell-word).  Repeated invocations of the widget retrieve
earlier words on the relevant history line.  With a numeric argument
var(N), insert the var(N)th word from the history line; var(N) may be
negative to count from the end of the line.

If tt(insert-last-word) has been used to retrieve the last word on a
previous history line, repeated invocations will replace that word with
earlier words from the same line.

Otherwise, the widget applies to words on the line currently being edited.
The tt(widget) style can be set to the name of another widget that should
be called to retrieve words.  This widget must accept the same three
arguments as tt(insert-last-word).
)
tindex(cycle-completion-positions)
item(tt(cycle-completion-positions))(
After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the new
function based completion system may know about multiple places in
this string where characters are missing or differ from at least one
of the possible matches.  It will then place the cursor on the
position it considers to be the most interesting one, i.e. the one
where one can disambiguate between as many matches as possible with as 
little typing as possible.

This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved to the other interesting
spots.  It can be invoked repeatedly to cycle between all positions
reported by the completion system.
)
tindex(delete-whole-word-match)
item(tt(delete-whole-word-match))(
This is another function which works like the tt(-match) functions
described immediately above, i.e. using styles to decide the word
boundaries.  However, it is not a replacement for any existing function.

The basic behaviour is to delete the word around the cursor.  There is no
numeric argument handling; only the single word around the cursor is
considered.  If the widget contains the string tt(kill), the removed text
will be placed in the cutbuffer for future yanking.  This can be obtained
by defining tt(kill-whole-word-match) as follows:

example(zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match)

and then binding the widget tt(kill-whole-word-match).
)
tindex(down-line-or-beginning-search)
tindex(up-line-or-beginning-search)
item(tt(up-line-or-beginning-search), tt(down-line-or-beginning-search))(
These widgets are similar to the builtin functions tt(up-line-or-search)
and tt(down-line-or-search):  if in a multiline buffer they move up or
down within the buffer, otherwise they search for a history line matching
the start of the current line.  In this case, however, they search for
a line which matches the current line up to the current cursor position, in
the manner of tt(history-beginning-search-backward) and tt(-forward), rather
than the first word on the line.
)
tindex(edit-command-line)
item(tt(edit-command-line))(
Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in tt(ksh).

example(bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line)

The editor to be used can also be specified using the tt(editor) style in
the context of the widget. It is specified as an array of command and
arguments:

example(zstyle :zle:edit-command-line editor gvim -f)
)
tindex(expand-absolute-path)
item(tt(expand-absolute-path))(
Expand the file name under the cursor to an absolute path, resolving
symbolic links.  Where possible, the initial path segment is turned
into a named directory or reference to a user's home directory.
)
tindex(history-beginning-search-backward-end)
tindex(history-beginning-search-forward-end)
item(tt(history-search-end))(
This function implements the widgets
tt(history-beginning-search-backward-end) and
tt(history-beginning-search-forward-end).  These commands work by first
calling the corresponding builtin widget (see
ifzman(`History Control' in zmanref(zshzle))\
ifnzman(noderef(History Control))\
) and then moving the cursor to the end of the line.  The original cursor
position is remembered and restored before calling the builtin widget a
second time, so that the same search is repeated to look farther through
the history.

Although you tt(autoload) only one function, the commands to use it are
slightly different because it implements two widgets.

example(zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \ 
       history-search-end
zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \ 
       history-search-end
bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end)
)
tindex(history-beginning-search-menu)
item(tt(history-beginning-search-menu))(
This function implements yet another form of history searching.  The
text before the cursor is used to select lines from the history,
as for tt(history-beginning-search-backward) except that all matches are
shown in a numbered menu.  Typing the appropriate digits inserts the
full history line.  Note that leading zeroes must be typed (they are only
shown when necessary for removing ambiguity).  The entire history is
searched; there is no distinction between forwards and backwards.

With a numeric argument, the search is not anchored to the start of
the line; the string typed by the use may appear anywhere in the line
in the history.

If the widget name contains `tt(-end)' the cursor is moved to the end of
the line inserted.  If the widget name contains `tt(-space)' any space
in the text typed is treated as a wildcard and can match anything (hence
a leading space is equivalent to giving a numeric argument).  Both
forms can be combined, for example:

example(zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \ 
       history-beginning-search-menu)
)
tindex(history-pattern-search)
tindex(history-pattern-search-backward)
tindex(history-pattern-search-forward)
item(tt(history-pattern-search))(
The function tt(history-pattern-search) implements widgets which prompt
for a pattern with which to search the history backwards or forwards.  The
pattern is in the usual zsh format, however the first character may be
tt(^) to anchor the search to the start of the line, and the last character
may be tt($) to anchor the search to the end of the line.  If the
search was not anchored to the end of the line the cursor is positioned
just after the pattern found.

The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those in the
example immediately above:

example(autoload -U history-pattern-search
zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search)
)
tindex(incarg)
vindex(incarg, use of)
item(tt(incarg))(
Typing the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on or to the
left of an integer causes that integer to be incremented by one.  With a
numeric argument, the number is incremented by the amount of the
argument (decremented if the numeric argument is negative).  The shell
parameter tt(incarg) may be set to change the default increment to
something other than one.

example(bindkey '^X+' incarg)
)
tindex(incremental-complete-word)
item(tt(incremental-complete-word))(
This allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting this
command, a list of completion choices can be shown after every character
you type, which you can delete with tt(^H) or tt(DEL).  Pressing return
accepts the completion so far and returns you to normal editing (that is,
the command line is em(not) immediately executed).  You can hit tt(TAB) to
do normal completion, tt(^G) to abort back to the state when you started,
and tt(^D) to list the matches.

This works only with the new function based completion system.

example(bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word)
)
tindex(insert-composed-char)
item(tt(insert-composed-char))(
This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear on the
keyboard to be inserted into the command line.  The command is followed by
two keys corresponding to ASCII characters (there is no prompt).  For
accented characters, the two keys are a base character followed by a code
for the accent, while for other special characters the two characters
together form a mnemonic for the character to be inserted.  The
two-character codes are a subset of those given by RFC 1345 (see for
example uref(http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1345.html)).

The function may optionally be followed by up to two characters which
replace one or both of the characters read from the keyboard; if both
characters are supplied, no input is read.  For example,
tt(insert-composed-char a:) can be used within a widget to insert an a with
umlaut into the command line.  This has the advantages over use of a
literal character that it is more portable.

For best results zsh should have been built with support for multibyte
characters (configured with tt(--enable-multibyte)); however, the function
works for the limited range of characters available in single-byte
character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

The character is converted into the local representation and
inserted into the command line at the cursor position.
(The conversion is done within the shell, using whatever facilities
the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the character and its
code are previewed in the status line

The function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the character
(together with a newline) to standard output.  Input is still read from
keystrokes.

See tt(insert-unicode-char) for an alternative way of inserting Unicode
characters using their hexadecimal character number.

The set of accented characters is reasonably complete up to Unicode
character U+0180, the set of special characters less so.  However, it
is very sporadic from that point.  Adding new characters is easy,
however; see the function tt(define-composed-chars).  Please send any
additions to tt(zsh-workers@zsh.org).

The codes for the second character when used to accent the first are as
follows.  Note that not every character can take every accent.
startsitem()
sitem(tt(!))(Grave.)
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()))(Acute.)
sitem(tt(>))(Circumflex.)
sitem(tt(?))(Tilde.  (This is not tt(~) as RFC 1345 does not assume that
character is present on the keyboard.))
sitem(tt(-))(Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.))
sitem(tt(LPAR()))(Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.))
sitem(tt(.))(Dot above the base character, or in the case of tt(i) no dot,
or in the case of tt(L) and tt(l) a centered dot.)
sitem(tt(:))(Diaeresis (Umlaut).)
sitem(tt(c))(Cedilla.)
sitem(tt(_))(Underline, however there are currently no underlined characters.)
sitem(tt(/))(Stroke through the base character.)
sitem(tt("))(Double acute (only supported on a few letters).)
sitem(tt(;))(Ogonek.  (A little forward facing hook at the bottom right
of the character.))
sitem(tt(<))(Caron.  (A little v over the letter.))
sitem(tt(0))(Circle over the base character.)
sitem(tt(2))(Hook over the base character.)
sitem(tt(9))(Horn over the base character.)
endsitem()

The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek and Hebrew
alphabets are available; consult RFC 1345 for the appropriate sequences.
In addition, a set of two letter codes not in RFC 1345 are available for
the double-width characters corresponding to ASCII characters from tt(!)
to tt(~) (0x21 to 0x7e) by preceding the character with tt(^), for
example tt(^A) for a double-width tt(A).

The following other two-character sequences are understood.

startitem()
item(ASCII characters)(
These are already present on most keyboards:
startsitem()
sitem(tt(<LPAR()))(Left square bracket)
sitem(tt(//))(Backslash (solidus))
sitem(tt(RPAR()>))(Right square bracket)
sitem(tt(LPAR()!))(Left brace (curly bracket))
sitem(tt(!!))(Vertical bar (pipe symbol))
sitem(tt(!RPAR()))(Right brace (curly bracket))
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()?))(Tilde)
endsitem()
)
item(Special letters)(
Characters found in various variants of the Latin alphabet:
startsitem()
sitem(tt(ss))(Eszett (scharfes S))
sitem(tt(D-), tt(d-))(Eth)
sitem(tt(TH), tt(th))(Thorn)
sitem(tt(kk))(Kra)
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()n))(RQUOTE()n)
sitem(tt(NG), tt(ng))(Ng)
sitem(tt(OI), tt(oi))(Oi)
sitem(tt(yr))(yr)
sitem(tt(ED))(ezh)
endsitem()
)
item(Currency symbols)(
startsitem()
sitem(tt(Ct))(Cent)
sitem(tt(Pd))(Pound sterling (also lira and others))
sitem(tt(Cu))(Currency)
sitem(tt(Ye))(Yen)
sitem(tt(Eu))(Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345))
endsitem()
)
item(Punctuation characters)(
References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a 9 rather than 6)
rather than their grammatical use.  (For example, a "right" low double
quote is used to open quotations in German.)
startsitem()
sitem(tt(!I))(Inverted exclamation mark)
sitem(tt(BB))(Broken vertical bar)
sitem(tt(SE))(Section)
sitem(tt(Co))(Copyright)
sitem(tt(-a))(Spanish feminine ordinal indicator)
sitem(tt(<<))(Left guillemet)
sitem(tt(-)tt(-))(Soft hyphen)
sitem(tt(Rg))(Registered trade mark)
sitem(tt(PI))(Pilcrow (paragraph))
sitem(tt(-o))(Spanish masculine ordinal indicator)
sitem(tt(>>))(Right guillemet)
sitem(tt(?I))(Inverted question mark)
sitem(tt(-1))(Hyphen)
sitem(tt(-N))(En dash)
sitem(tt(-M))(Em dash)
sitem(tt(-3))(Horizontal bar)
sitem(tt(:3))(Vertical ellipsis)
sitem(tt(.3))(Horizontal midline ellipsis)
sitem(tt(!2))(Double vertical line)
sitem(tt(=2))(Double low line)
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()6))(Left single quote)
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()9))(Right single quote)
sitem(tt(.9))("Right" low quote)
sitem(tt(9+RQUOTE()))(Reversed "right" quote)
sitem(tt("6))(Left double quote)
sitem(tt("9))(Right double quote)
sitem(tt(:9))("Right" low double quote)
sitem(tt(9"))(Reversed "right" double quote)
sitem(tt(/-))(Dagger)
sitem(tt(/=))(Double dagger)
endsitem()
)
item(Mathematical symbols)(
startsitem()
sitem(tt(DG))(Degree)
sitem(tt(-2), tt(+-), tt(-+))(- sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign)
sitem(tt(2S))(Superscript 2)
sitem(tt(3S))(Superscript 3)
sitem(tt(1S))(Superscript 1)
sitem(tt(My))(Micro)
sitem(tt(.M))(Middle dot)
sitem(tt(14))(Quarter)
sitem(tt(12))(Half)
sitem(tt(34))(Three quarters)
sitem(tt(*X))(Multiplication)
sitem(tt(-:))(Division)
sitem(tt(%0))(Per mille)
sitem(tt(FA), tt(TE), tt(/0))(For all, there exists, empty set)
sitem(tt(dP), tt(DE), tt(NB))(Partial derivative, delta (increment), del
(nabla))
sitem(tt(LPAR()-), tt(-RPAR()))(Element of, contains)
sitem(tt(*P), tt(+Z))(Product, sum)
sitem(tt(*-), tt(Ob), tt(Sb))(Asterisk, ring, bullet)
sitem(tt(RT), tt(0+LPAR()), tt(00))(Root sign, proportional to, infinity)
endsitem()
)
item(Other symbols)(
startsitem()
sitem(tt(cS), tt(cH), tt(cD), tt(cC))(Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds,
clubs)
sitem(tt(Md), tt(M8), tt(M2), tt(Mb), tt(Mx), tt(MX))(Musical notation:
crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth note), semiquavers (sixteenth
notes), flag sign, natural sign, sharp sign)
sitem(tt(Fm), tt(Ml))(Female, male)
endsitem()
)
item(Accents on their own)(
startsitem()
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()>))(Circumflex (same as caret, tt(^)))
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()!))(Grave (same as backtick, tt(`)))
sitem(tt(RQUOTE(),))(Cedilla)
sitem(tt(RQUOTE():))(Diaeresis (Umlaut))
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()m))(Macron)
sitem(tt(RQUOTE()RQUOTE()))(Acute)
endsitem()
)
enditem()
)
tindex(insert-files)
item(tt(insert-files))(
This function allows you type a file pattern, and see the results of the
expansion at each step.  When you hit return, all expansions are inserted
into the command line.

example(bindkey '^Xf' insert-files)
)
tindex(insert-unicode-char)
item(tt(insert-unicode-char))(
When first executed, the user inputs a set of hexadecimal digits.
This is terminated with another call to tt(insert-unicode-char).
The digits are then turned into the corresponding Unicode character.
For example, if the widget is bound to tt(^XU), the character sequence
`tt(^XU 4 c ^XU)' inserts tt(L) (Unicode U+004c).

See tt(insert-composed-char) for a way of inserting characters
using a two-character mnemonic.
)
tindex(narrow-to-region)
tindex(narrow-to-region-invisible)
redef(SPACES)(0)(tt(ifztexi(NOTRANS(@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ ))ifnztexi(                 )))
xitem(tt(narrow-to-region )[ tt(-p) var(pre) ] [ tt(-P) var(post) ])
xitem(SPACES()[ tt(-S) var(statepm) | tt(-R) var(statepm) | [ tt(-l) var(lbufvar) ] [ tt(-r) var(rbufvar) ] ])
xitem(SPACES()[ tt(-n) ] [ var(start) var(end) ])
item(tt(narrow-to-region-invisible))(
Narrow the editable portion of the buffer to the region between the cursor
and the mark, which may be in either order.  The region may not be empty.

tt(narrow-to-region) may be used as a widget or called as a function from a
user-defined widget; by default, the text outside the editable area remains
visible.  A tt(recursive-edit) is performed and the original widening
status is then restored.  Various options and arguments are available when
it is called as a function.

The options tt(-p) var(pretext) and tt(-P) var(posttext) may be
used to replace the text before and after the display for the duration of
the function; either or both may be an empty string.

If the option tt(-n) is also given, var(pretext) or var(posttext) will only
be inserted if there is text before or after the region respectively which
will be made invisible.

Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead of the cursor
and mark positions.

The option tt(-S) var(statepm) is used to narrow according to the other
options while saving the original state in the parameter with name
var(statepm), while the option tt(-R) var(statepm) is used to restore the
state from the parameter; note in both cases the em(name) of the parameter
is required.  In the second case, other options and arguments are
irrelevant.  When this method is used, no tt(recursive-edit) is performed;
the calling widget should call this function with the option tt(-S),
perform its own editing on the command line or pass control to the user
via `tt(zle recursive-edit)', then call this function with the option
tt(-R).  The argument var(statepm) must be a suitable name for an ordinary
parameter, except that parameters beginning with the prefix tt(_ntr_) are
reserved for use within tt(narrow-to-region).  Typically the parameter will
be local to the calling function.

The options tt(-l) var(lbufvar) and tt(-r) var(rbufvar) may be used to
specify parameters where the widget will store the resulting text from
the operation.  The parameter var(lbufvar) will contain tt(LBUFFER)
and var(rbufvar) will contain tt(RBUFFER).  Neither of these two options
may be used with tt(-S) or tt(-R).

tt(narrow-to-region-invisible) is a simple widget which calls
tt(narrow-to-region) with arguments which replace any text outside the
region with `tt(...)'.  It does not take any arguments.

The display is restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle command
which would usually cause the line to be accepted or aborted.  Hence an
additional such command is required to accept or abort the current line.

The return status of both widgets is zero if the line was accepted, else
non-zero.

Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
example(local state
narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \ 
  -P '' -S state
zle recursive-edit
narrow-to-region -R state)
)
tindex(predict-on)
tindex(predict-off)
item(tt(predict-on))(
This set of functions implements predictive typing using history search.
After tt(predict-on), typing characters causes the editor to look backward
in the history for the first line beginning with what you have typed so
far.  After tt(predict-off), editing returns to normal for the line found.
In fact, you often don't even need to use tt(predict-off), because if the
line doesn't match something in the history, adding a key performs
standard completion, and then inserts itself if no completions were found.
However, editing in the middle of a line is liable to confuse prediction;
see the tt(toggle) style below.

With the function based completion system (which is needed for this), you
should be able to type tt(TAB) at almost any point to advance the cursor
to the next ``interesting'' character position (usually the end of the
current word, but sometimes somewhere in the middle of the word).  And of
course as soon as the entire line is what you want, you can accept with
return, without needing to move the cursor to the end first.

The first time tt(predict-on) is used, it creates several additional
widget functions:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(delete-backward-and-predict))(Replaces the tt(backward-delete-char)
widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.)
sitem(tt(insert-and-predict))(Implements predictive typing by replacing the
tt(self-insert) widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.)
sitem(tt(predict-off))(Turns off predictive typing.)
endsitem()

Although you tt(autoload) only the tt(predict-on) function, it is
necessary to create a keybinding for tt(predict-off) as well.

example(zle -N predict-on
zle -N predict-off
bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
bindkey '^Z' predict-off)
)
tindex(read-from-minibuffer)
item(tt(read-from-minibuffer))(
This is most useful when called as a function from inside a widget, but will
work correctly as a widget in its own right.  It prompts for a value
below the current command line; a value may be input using all of the
standard zle operations (and not merely the restricted set available
when executing, for example, tt(execute-named-cmd)).  The value is then
returned to the calling function in the parameter tt($REPLY) and the
editing buffer restored to its previous state.  If the read was aborted
by a keyboard break (typically tt(^G)), the function returns status 1
and tt($REPLY) is not set.

If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a prompt,
otherwise `tt(? )' is used.  If two arguments are supplied, they are the
prompt and the initial value of tt($LBUFFER), and if a third argument is
given it is the initial value of tt($RBUFFER).  This provides a default
value and starting cursor placement.  Upon return the entire buffer is the
value of tt($REPLY).

One option is available: `tt(-k) var(num)' specifies that var(num)
characters are to be read instead of a whole line.  The line editor is not
invoked recursively in this case, so depending on the terminal settings
the input may not be visible, and only the input keys are placed in
tt($REPLY), not the entire buffer.  Note that unlike the tt(read) builtin
var(num) must be given; there is no default.

The name is a slight misnomer, as in fact the shell's own minibuffer is
not used.  Hence it is still possible to call tt(executed-named-cmd) and
similar functions while reading a value.
)
tindex(replace-argument)
tindex(replace-argument-edit)
item(tt(replace-argument), tt(replace-argument-edit))
(
The function tt(replace-argument) can be used to replace a command
line argument in the current command line or, if the current command
line is empty, in the last command line executed (the new command line
is not executed).  Arguments are as delimited by standard shell syntax,

If a numeric argument is given, that specifies the argument to be
replaced.  0 means the command name, as in history expansion.
A negative numeric argument counts backward from the last word.

If no numeric argument is given, the current argument is replaced;
this is the last argument if the previous history line is being used.

The function prompts for a replacement argument.

If the widget contains the string tt(edit), for example is defined as

example(zle -N replace-argument-edit replace-argument)

then the function presents the current value of the argument for
editing, otherwise the editing buffer for the replacement is
initially empty.
)
tindex(replace-string)
tindex(replace-string-again)
tindex(replace-pattern)
xitem(tt(replace-string), tt(replace-pattern))
item(tt(replace-string-again), tt(replace-pattern-again))(
The function tt(replace-string) implements three widgets.
If defined under the same name as the function, it prompts for two
strings; the first (source) string will be replaced by the second
everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

If the widget name contains the word `tt(pattern)', for example by
defining the widget using the command `tt(zle -N replace-pattern
replace-string)', then the matching is performed using zsh patterns.  All
zsh extended globbing patterns can be used in the source string; note
that unlike filename generation the pattern does not need to match an
entire word, nor do glob qualifiers have any effect.  In addition, the
replacement string can contain parameter or command substitutions.
Furthermore, a `tt(&)' in the replacement string will be replaced with
the matched source string, and a backquoted digit `tt(\)var(N)' will be
replaced by the var(N)th parenthesised expression matched.  The form
`tt(\{)var(N)tt(})' may be used to protect the digit from following
digits.

If the widget instead contains the word `tt(regex)' (or `tt(regexp)'),
then the matching is performed using regular expressions, respecting
the setting of the option tt(RE_MATCH_PCRE) (see the description of the
function tt(regexp-replace) below).  The special replacement facilities
described above for pattern matching are available.

By default the previous source or replacement string will not be offered
for editing.  However, this feature can be activated by setting the style
tt(edit-previous) in the context tt(:zle:)var(widget) (for example,
tt(:zle:replace-string)) to tt(true).  In addition, a positive
numeric argument forces the previous values to be offered, a negative or
zero argument forces them not to be.

The function tt(replace-string-again) can be used to repeat the previous
replacement; no prompting is done.  As with tt(replace-string), if the name
of the widget contains the word `tt(pattern)' or `tt(regex)', pattern or
regular expression matching is performed, else a literal string
replacement.  Note that the previous source and replacement text are the
same whether pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

In addition, tt(replace-string) shows the previous replacement above
the prompt, so long as there was one during the current session; if the
source string is empty, that replacement will be repeated without
the widget prompting for a replacement string.

For example, starting from the line:

example(print This line contains fan and fond)

and invoking tt(replace-pattern) with the source string
`tt(f+LPAR()?+RPAR()n)' and
the replacement string `tt(c\1r)' produces the not very useful line:

example(print This line contains car and cord)

The range of the replacement string can be limited by using the
tt(narrow-to-region-invisible) widget.  One limitation of the current
version is that tt(undo) will cycle through changes to the replacement
and source strings before undoing the replacement itself.
)
tindex(send-invisible)
item(tt(send-invisible))(
This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called as a
function from a widget or as a widget of its own, and interactively reads
input from the keyboard.  However, the input being typed is concealed and
a string of asterisks (`tt(*)') is shown instead.  The value is saved in
the parameter tt($INVISIBLE) to which a reference is inserted into the
editing buffer at the restored cursor position.  If the read was aborted
by a keyboard break (typically tt(^G)) or another escape from editing such
as tt(push-line), tt($INVISIBLE) is set to empty and the original buffer
is restored unchanged.

If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a prompt,
otherwise `tt(Non-echoed text: )' is used (as in emacs).  If a second and
third argument are supplied they are used to begin and end the reference
to tt($INVISIBLE) that is inserted into the buffer.  The default is to
open with tt(${), then tt(INVISIBLE), and close with tt(}), but many
other effects are possible.
)
tindex(smart-insert-last-word)
item(tt(smart-insert-last-word))(
This function may replace the tt(insert-last-word) widget, like so:

example(zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word)

With a numeric argument, or when passed command line arguments in a call
from another widget, it behaves like tt(insert-last-word), except that
words in comments are ignored when tt(INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS) is set.

Otherwise, the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous command is
found and inserted.  The default definition of ``interesting'' is that the
word contains at least one alphabetic character, slash, or backslash.
This definition may be overridden by use of the tt(match) style.  The
context used to look up the style is the widget name, so usually the
context is tt(:insert-last-word).  However, you can bind this function to
different widgets to use different patterns:

example(zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment)

If no interesting word is found and the tt(auto-previous) style is set to
a true value, the search continues upward through the history.  When
tt(auto-previous) is unset or false (the default), the widget must be
invoked repeatedly in order to search earlier history lines.
)
tindex(transpose-lines)
item(tt(transpose-lines))(
Only useful with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are
lines within the current on-screen buffer, not history lines.
The effect is similar to the function of the same name in Emacs.

Transpose the current line with the previous line and move the cursor
to the start of the next line.  Repeating this (which can be done by
providing a positive numeric argument) has the effect of moving
the line above the cursor down by a number of lines.

With a negative numeric argument, requires two lines above the
cursor.  These two lines are transposed and the cursor moved to the
start of the previous line.  Using a numeric argument less than -1
has the effect of moving the line above the cursor up by minus that
number of lines.
)
tindex(url-quote-magic)
item(tt(url-quote-magic))(
This widget replaces the built-in tt(self-insert) to make it easier to
type URLs as command line arguments.  As you type, the input character is
analyzed and, if it may need quoting, the current word is checked for a
URI scheme.  If one is found and the current word is not already in
quotes, a backslash is inserted before the input character.

Styles to control quoting behavior:

startitem()
item(tt(url-metas))(
This style is looked up in the context `tt(:url-quote-magic:)var(scheme)'
(where var(scheme) is that of the current URL, e.g. "tt(ftp)").  The value
is a string listing the characters to be treated as globbing
metacharacters when appearing in a URL using that scheme.  The default is
to quote all zsh extended globbing characters, excluding 'tt(<)' and
'tt(>)' but including braces (as in brace expansion).  See also
tt(url-seps).
)
item(tt(url-seps))(
Like tt(url-metas), but lists characters that should be considered command
separators, redirections, history references, etc.  The default is to
quote the standard set of shell separators, excluding those that overlap
with the extended globbing characters, but including 'tt(<)' and
'tt(>)' and the first character of tt($histchars).
)
item(tt(url-globbers))(
This style is looked up in the context `tt(:url-quote-magic)'.  The values
form a list of command names that are expected to do their own globbing
on the URL string.  This implies that they are aliased to use the
`tt(noglob)' modifier.  When the first word on the line matches one of the
values em(and) the URL refers to a local file (see tt(url-local-schema)),
only the tt(url-seps) characters are quoted; the tt(url-metas) are left
alone, allowing them to affect command-line parsing, completion, etc.  The
default values are a literal `tt(noglob)' plus (when the tt(zsh/parameter)
module is available) any commands aliased to the helper function
`tt(urlglobber)' or its alias `tt(globurl)'.
)
item(tt(url-local-schema))(
This style is always looked up in the context `tt(:urlglobber)', even
though it is used by both url-quote-magic and urlglobber.  The values form
a list of URI schema that should be treated as referring to local files by
their real local path names, as opposed to files which are specified
relative to a web-server-defined document root.  The defaults are
"tt(ftp)" and "tt(file)".
)
item(tt(url-other-schema))(
Like tt(url-local-schema), but lists all other URI schema upon which
tt(urlglobber) and tt(url-quote-magic) should act.  If the URI on the
command line does not have a scheme appearing either in this list or in
tt(url-local-schema), it is not magically quoted.  The default values are
"tt(http)", "tt(https)", and "tt(ftp)".  When a scheme appears both here
and in tt(url-local-schema), it is quoted differently depending on whether
the command name appears in tt(url-globbers).
)
enditem()

Loading tt(url-quote-magic) also defines a helper function `tt(urlglobber)'
and aliases `tt(globurl)' to `tt(noglob urlglobber)'.  This function takes
a local URL apart, attempts to pattern-match the local file portion of the
URL path, and then puts the results back into URL format again.
)
tindex(vi-pipe)
item(tt(vi-pipe))(
This function reads a movement command from the keyboard and then
prompts for an external command. The part of the buffer covered by
the movement is piped to the external command and then replaced by
the command's output. If the movement command is bound to vi-pipe,
the current line is used.

The function serves as an example for reading a vi movement command
from within a user-defined widget.
)
tindex(which-command)
item(tt(which-command))(
This function is a drop-in replacement for the builtin widget
tt(which-command).  It has enhanced behaviour, in that it correctly
detects whether or not the command word needs to be expanded as an
alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word from the expanded
alias until it reaches the command that will be executed.

The style tt(whence) is available in the context tt(:zle:$WIDGET); this
may be set to an array to give the command and options that will be used to
investigate the command word found.  The default is tt(whence -c).
)
tindex(zcalc-auto-insert)
item(tt(zcalc-auto-insert))(
This function is useful together with the tt(zcalc) function described in
ifzman(the section Mathematical Functions)\
ifnzman(noderef(Mathematical Functions)).
It should be bound to a key representing a binary operator such
as `tt(PLUS())', `tt(-)', `tt(*)' or `tt(/)'.  When running in zcalc,
if the key occurs at the start of the line or immediately following
an open parenthesis, the text tt("ans ") is inserted before the
representation of the key itself.  This allows easy use of the
answer from the previous calculation in the current line.  The
text to be inserted before the symbol typed can be modified by setting
the variable tt(ZCALC_AUTO_INSERT_PREFIX).

Hence, for example, typing `tt(PLUS()12)' followed by return adds 12
to the previous result.

If zcalc is in RPN mode (tt(-r) option) the effect of this binding is
automatically suppressed as operators alone on a line are meaningful.

When not in zcalc, the key simply inserts the symbol itself.
)
enditem()

subsect(Utility Functions)

These functions are useful in constructing widgets.  They
should be loaded with `tt(autoload -U) var(function)' and called
as indicated from user-defined widgets.

startitem()
tindex(split-shell-arguments)
item(tt(split-shell-arguments))(
This function splits the line currently being edited into shell arguments
and whitespace.  The result is stored in the array tt(reply).  The array
contains all the parts of the line in order, starting with any whitespace
before the first argument, and finishing with any whitespace after the last
argument.  Hence (so long as the option tt(KSH_ARRAYS) is not set)
whitespace is given by odd indices in the array and arguments by
even indices.  Note that no stripping of quotes is done; joining together
all the elements of tt(reply) in order is guaranteed to produce the
original line.

The parameter tt(REPLY) is set to the index of the word in tt(reply) which
contains the character after the cursor, where the first element has index
1.  The parameter tt(REPLY2) is set to the index of the character under the
cursor in that word, where the first character has index 1.

Hence tt(reply), tt(REPLY) and tt(REPLY2) should all be made local to
the enclosing function.

See the function tt(modify-current-argument), described below, for
an example of how to call this function.
)
tindex(modify-current-argument)
item(tt(modify-current-argument) [ var(expr-using-)tt($ARG) | var(func) ])(
This function provides a simple method of allowing user-defined widgets
to modify the command line argument under the cursor (or immediately to the
left of the cursor if the cursor is between arguments).

The argument can be an expression which when evaluated operates on the shell
parameter tt(ARG), which will have been set to the command line argument
under the cursor.  The expression should be suitably quoted to prevent
it being evaluated too early.

Alternatively, if the argument does not contain the string tt(ARG), it
is assumed to be a shell function, to which the current command line
argument is passed as the only argument.  The function should set the
variable tt(REPLY) to the new value for the command line argument.
If the function returns non-zero status, so does the calling function.

For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code
converts the characters in the argument under the cursor into all upper
case:

example(modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}')

The following strips any quoting from the current word (whether backslashes
or one of the styles of quotes), and replaces it with single quoting
throughout:

example(modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}')

The following performs directory expansion on the command line
argument and replaces it by the absolute path:

example(expand-dir+LPAR()RPAR() {
  REPLY=${~1}
  REPLY=${REPLY:a}
}
modify-current-argument expand-dir)

In practice the function tt(expand-dir) would probably not be defined
within the widget where tt(modify-current-argument) is called.
)
enditem()

subsect(Styles)

The behavior of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the use
of the tt(zstyle) mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with
the completion system pass along their context to any completions that
they invoke.

startitem()
kindex(break-keys, widget style)
item(tt(break-keys))(
This style is used by the tt(incremental-complete-word) widget. Its value
should be a pattern, and all keys matching this pattern will cause the
widget to stop incremental completion without the key having any further
effect. Like all styles used directly by
tt(incremental-complete-word), this style is looked up using the
context `tt(:incremental)'.
)
kindex(completer, completion style)
item(tt(completer))(
The tt(incremental-complete-word) and tt(insert-and-predict) widgets set
up their top-level context name before calling completion.  This allows
one to define different sets of completer functions for normal completion
and for these widgets.  For example, to use completion, approximation and
correction for normal completion, completion and correction for
incremental completion and only completion for prediction one could use:

example(zstyle ':completion:*' completer \ 
        _complete _correct _approximate
zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \ 
        _complete _correct
zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \ 
        _complete)

It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction, because
they may be automatically invoked as you type.  The tt(_list) and
tt(_menu) completers should never be used with prediction.  The
tt(_approximate), tt(_correct), tt(_expand), and tt(_match) completers may
be used, but be aware that they may change characters anywhere in the word
behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully that the result is what
you intended.
)
kindex(cursor, completion style)
item(tt(cursor))(
The tt(insert-and-predict) widget uses this style, in the context
`tt(:predict)', to decide where to place the cursor after completion has
been tried.  Values are:

startitem()
item(tt(complete))(
The cursor is left where it was when completion finished, but only if
it is after a character equal to the one just inserted by the user.  If 
it is after another character, this value is the same as `tt(key)'.
)
item(tt(key))(
The cursor is left
after the var(n)th occurrence of the character just inserted, where
var(n) is the number of times that character appeared in the word
before completion was attempted.  In short, this has the effect of
leaving the cursor after the character just typed even if the
completion code found out that no other characters need to be inserted 
at that position.
)
enditem()

Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor at the
position where the completion code left it.
)
kindex(list, widget style)
item(tt(list))(
When using the tt(incremental-complete-word) widget, this style says
if the matches should be listed on every key press (if they fit on the 
screen).  Use the context prefix `tt(:completion:incremental)'.

The tt(insert-and-predict) widget uses this style to decide if the
completion should be shown even if there is only one possible completion.
This is done if the value of this style is the string tt(always).  In this
case the context is `tt(:predict)' (em(not) `tt(:completion:predict)').
)
kindex(match, widget style)
item(tt(match))(
This style is used by tt(smart-insert-last-word) to provide a pattern
(using full tt(EXTENDED_GLOB) syntax) that matches an interesting word.
The context is the name of the widget to which tt(smart-insert-last-word)
is bound (see above).  The default behavior of tt(smart-insert-last-word)
is equivalent to:

example(zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*')

However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

example(zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*')

Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two characters long:

example(zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*')

The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.
)
kindex(prompt, widget style)
item(tt(prompt))(
The tt(incremental-complete-word) widget shows the value of this
style in the status line during incremental completion.  The string
value may contain any of the following substrings in the manner of
the tt(PS1) and other prompt parameters:

startitem()
item(tt(%c))(
Replaced by the name of the completer function that generated the
matches (without the leading underscore).
)
item(tt(%l))(
When the tt(list) style is set,
replaced by `tt(...)' if the list of matches is too long to fit on the
screen and with an empty string otherwise.  If the tt(list) style is
`false' or not set, `tt(%l)' is always removed.
)
item(tt(%n))(
Replaced by the number of matches generated.
)
item(tt(%s))(
Replaced by `tt(-no match-)', `tt(-no prefix-)', or an empty string
if there is no completion matching the word on the line, if the
matches have no common prefix different from the word on the line, or
if there is such a common prefix, respectively.
)
item(tt(%u))(
Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there
is any, and if it is different from the word on the line.
)
enditem()

Like `tt(break-keys)', this uses the `tt(:incremental)' context.
)
kindex(stop-keys, widget style)
item(tt(stop-keys))(
This style is used by the tt(incremental-complete-word) widget.  Its value
is treated similarly to the one for the tt(break-keys) style (and uses 
the same context: `tt(:incremental)').  However, in
this case all keys matching the pattern given as its value will stop
incremental completion and will then execute their usual function.
)
kindex(toggle, widget style)
item(tt(toggle))(
This boolean style is used by tt(predict-on) and its related widgets in
the context `tt(:predict)'.  If set to one of the standard `true' values,
predictive typing is automatically toggled off in situations where it is
unlikely to be useful, such as when editing a multi-line buffer or after
moving into the middle of a line and then deleting a character.  The
default is to leave prediction turned on until an explicit call to
tt(predict-off).
)
kindex(verbose, widget style)
item(tt(verbose))(
This boolean style is used by tt(predict-on) and its related widgets in
the context `tt(:predict)'.  If set to one of the standard `true' values,
these widgets display a message below the prompt when the predictive state
is toggled.  This is most useful in combination with the tt(toggle) style.
The default does not display these messages.
)
kindex(widget, widget style)
item(tt(widget))(
This style is similar to the tt(command) style: For widget functions that
use tt(zle) to call other widgets, this style can sometimes be used to
override the widget which is called.  The context for this style is the
name of the calling widget (em(not) the name of the calling function,
because one function may be bound to multiple widget names).

example(zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word)

Check the documentation for the calling widget or function to determine
whether the tt(widget) style is used.
)
enditem()

texinode(Exception Handling)(MIME Functions)(ZLE Functions)(User Contributions)
sect(Exception Handling)

Two functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception handling in a
form that should be familiar from other languages.

startitem()
findex(throw)
item(tt(throw) var(exception))(
The function tt(throw) throws the named var(exception).  The name is
an arbitrary string and is only used by the tt(throw) and tt(catch)
functions.  An exception is for the most part treated the same as a
shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the shell to abort all
processing in a function or script and to return to the top level in an
interactive shell.
)
item(tt(catch) var(exception-pattern))(
The function tt(catch) returns status zero if an exception was thrown and
the pattern var(exception-pattern) matches its name.  Otherwise it
returns status 1.  var(exception-pattern) is a standard
shell pattern, respecting the current setting of the tt(EXTENDED_GLOB)
option.  An alias tt(catch) is also defined to prevent the argument to the
function from matching filenames, so patterns may be used unquoted.  Note
that as exceptions are not fundamentally different from other shell errors
it is possible to catch shell errors by using an empty string as the
exception name.  The shell variable tt(CAUGHT) is set by tt(catch) to the
name of the exception caught.  It is possible to rethrow an exception by
calling the tt(throw) function again once an exception has been caught.
findex(catch)
)
enditem()

The functions are designed to be used together with the tt(always) construct
described in
ifzman(zmanref(zshmisc))\
ifnzman(noderef(Complex Commands)).  This is important as only this
construct provides the required support for exceptions.  A typical example
is as follows.

example({
  # "try" block
  # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
} always {
  # "always" block
  if catch MyExcept; then
    print "Caught exception MyExcept"
  elif catch ''; then
    print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
    throw ''
  fi
  # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
  # up the call stack.
})

If all exceptions should be caught, the following idiom might be
preferable.

example({
  # ... nested code here throws an exception
} always {
  if catch *; then
    case $CAUGHT in
      LPAR()MyExcept+RPAR()
      print "Caught my own exception"
      ;;
      LPAR()*RPAR()
      print "Caught some other exception"
      ;;
    esac
  fi
})

In common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may be
thrown by code deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However, note that it
must be thrown inside the current shell, not in a subshell forked for a
pipeline, parenthesised current-shell construct, or some form of
command or process substitution.

The system internally uses the shell variable tt(EXCEPTION) to record the
name of the exception between throwing and catching.  One drawback of this
scheme is that if the exception is not handled the variable tt(EXCEPTION)
remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the name of an exception
if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding tt(unset EXCEPTION) at the
start of the outermost layer of any code that uses exception handling will
eliminate this problem.

texinode(MIME Functions)(Mathematical Functions)(Exception Handling)(User Contributions)
sect(MIME Functions)

Three functions are available to provide handling of files recognised by
extension, for example to dispatch a file tt(text.ps) when executed as a
command to an appropriate viewer.

startitem()
findex(zsh-mime-setup)
findex(zsh-mime-handler)
xitem(tt(zsh-mime-setup) [ tt(-fv) ] [ tt(-l) [ var(suffix) ... ] ])
item(tt(zsh-mime-handler) [ tt(-l) ] var(command argument) ...)(
These two functions use the files tt(~/.mime.types) and tt(/etc/mime.types),
which associate types and extensions, as well as tt(~/.mailcap) and
tt(/etc/mailcap) files, which associate types and the programs that
handle them.  These are provided on many systems with the Multimedia
Internet Mail Extensions.

To enable the system, the function tt(zsh-mime-setup) should be
autoloaded and run.  This allows files with extensions to be treated
as executable; such files be completed by the function completion system.
The function tt(zsh-mime-handler) should not need to be called by the
user.

The system works by setting up suffix aliases with `tt(alias -s)'.
Suffix aliases already installed by the user will not be overwritten.

For suffixes defined in lower case, upper case variants will also
automatically be handled (e.g. tt(PDF) is automatically handled if
handling for the suffix tt(pdf) is defined), but not vice versa.

Repeated calls to tt(zsh-mime-setup) do not override the existing
mapping between suffixes and executable files unless the option tt(-f)
is given.  Note, however, that this does not override existing suffix
aliases assigned to handlers other than tt(zsh-mime-handler).

Calling tt(zsh-mime-setup) with the option tt(-l) lists the existing
mappings without altering them.  Suffixes to list (which may contain
pattern characters that should be quoted from immediate interpretation
on the command line) may be given as additional arguments, otherwise
all suffixes are listed.

Calling tt(zsh-mime-setup) with the option
tt(-v) causes verbose output to be shown during the setup operation.

The system respects the tt(mailcap) flags tt(needsterminal) and
tt(copiousoutput); see manref(mailcap)(4) or manref(mailcap)(5)
(the man page's name varies across platforms).

The functions use the following styles, which are defined with the
tt(zstyle) builtin command (\
ifzman(see zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/zutil Module))).  They should be defined
before tt(zsh-mime-setup) is run.  The contexts used all
start with tt(:mime:), with additional components in some cases.
It is recommended that a trailing tt(*) (suitably quoted) be appended
to style patterns in case the system is extended in future.  Some
examples are given below.

For files that have multiple suffixes, e.g. tt(.pdf.gz), where the
context includes the suffix it will be looked up starting with the
longest possible suffix until a match for the style is found.
For example, if tt(.pdf.gz) produces a match for the handler, that
will be used; otherwise the handler for tt(.gz) will be used.  Note
that, owing to the way suffix aliases work, it is always required that
there be a handler for the shortest possible suffix, so in this example
tt(.pdf.gz) can only be handled if tt(.gz) is also handled (though
not necessarily in the same way).  Alternatively, if no handling
for tt(.gz) on its own is needed, simply adding the command

example(alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler)

to the initialisation code is sufficient; tt(.gz) will not be handled
on its own, but may be in combination with other suffixes.

startitem()
kindex(current-shell, MIME style)
item(tt(current-shell))(
If this boolean style is true, the mailcap handler for the context in
question is run using the tt(eval) builtin instead of by starting a new
tt(sh) process.  This is more efficient, but may not work in the occasional
cases where the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.
)
kindex(disown, MIME style)
item(tt(disown))(
If this boolean style is true, mailcap handlers started in the
background will be disowned, i.e. not subject to job control within
the parent shell.  Such handlers nearly always produce their own
windows, so the only likely harmful side effect of setting the style is
that it becomes harder to kill jobs from within the shell.
)
kindex(execute-as-is, MIME style)
item(tt(execute-as-is))(
This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against files
passed for execution with a handler program.  If the file matches
the pattern, the entire command line is executed in its current form,
with no handler.  This is useful for files which might have suffixes
but nonetheless be executable in their own right.  If the style
is not set, the pattern tt(*+LPAR()*+RPAR() *+LPAR()/+RPAR()) is used;
hence executable files are executed directly and not passed to a
handler, and the option tt(AUTO_CD) may be used to change to directories
that happen to have MIME suffixes.
)
kindex(execute-never, MIME style)
item(tt(execute-never))(
This style is useful in combination with tt(execute-as-is).  It is
set to an array of patterns corresponding to full paths to files that
should never be treated as executable, even if the file passed to
the MIME handler matches tt(execute-as-is).  This is useful for file
systems that don't handle execute permission or that contain executables
from another operating system.  For example, if tt(/mnt/windows) is a
Windows mount, then

example(zstyle ':mime:*' execute-never '/mnt/windows/*')

will ensure that any files found in that area will be executed as MIME
types even if they are executable.  As this example shows, the complete
file name is matched against the pattern, regardless of how the file
was passed to the handler.  The file is resolved to a full path using
the tt(:P) modifier described in
ifzman(the subsection Modifiers in zmanref(zshexpn))\
ifnzman(noderef(Modifiers));
this means that symbolic links are resolved where possible, so that
links into other file systems behave in the correct fashion.
)
kindex(file-path, MIME style)
item(tt(file-path))(
Used if the style tt(find-file-in-path) is true for the same context.
Set to an array of directories that are used for searching for the
file to be handled; the default is the command path given by the
special parameter tt(path).  The shell option tt(PATH_DIRS) is respected;
if that is set, the appropriate path will be searched even if the
name of the file to be handled as it appears on the command line contains
a `tt(/)'.
The full context is tt(:mime:.)var(suffix)tt(:), as described for the style
tt(handler).
)
kindex(find-file-in-path, MIME style)
item(tt(find-file-in-path))(
If set, allows files whose names do not contain absolute paths
to be searched for in the command path or the path specified by the
tt(file-path) style.  If the file is not found in the path, it is looked
for locally (whether or not the current directory is in the path); if it is
not found locally, the handler will abort unless the tt(handle-nonexistent)
style is set.  Files found in the path are tested as described for
the style tt(execute-as-is).
The full context is tt(:mime:.)var(suffix)tt(:), as described for the style
tt(handler).
)
kindex(flags, MIME style)
item(tt(flags))(
Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for the
tt(handler) style, and the format is as for the flags in tt(mailcap).
)
kindex(handle-nonexistent, MIME style)
item(tt(handle-nonexistent))(
By default, arguments that don't correspond to files are not passed
to the MIME handler in order to prevent it from intercepting commands found
in the path that happen to have suffixes.  This style may be set to
an array of extended glob patterns for arguments that will be passed to the
handler even if they don't exist.  If it is not explicitly set it
defaults to tt([[:alpha:]]#:/*) which allows URLs to be passed to the MIME
handler even though they don't exist in that format in the file system.
The full context is tt(:mime:.)var(suffix)tt(:), as described for the style
tt(handler).
)
kindex(handler, MIME style)
item(tt(handler))(
Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is given by the context as
tt(:mime:.)var(suffix)tt(:), and the format of the handler is exactly
that in tt(mailcap).  Note in particular the `tt(.)' and trailing colon
to distinguish this use of the context.  This overrides any handler
specified by the tt(mailcap) files.  If the handler requires a terminal,
the tt(flags) style should be set to include the word tt(needsterminal),
or if the output is to be displayed through a pager (but not if the
handler is itself a pager), it should include tt(copiousoutput).
)
kindex(mailcap, MIME style)
item(tt(mailcap))(
A list of files in the format of tt(~/.mailcap) and
tt(/etc/mailcap) to be read during setup, replacing the default list
which consists of those two files.  The context is tt(:mime:).
A tt(PLUS()) in the list will be replaced by the default files.
)
kindex(mailcap-priorities, MIME style)
item(tt(mailcap-priorities))(
This style is used to resolve multiple mailcap entries for the same MIME
type.  It consists of an array of the following elements, in descending
order of priority; later entries will be used if earlier entries are
unable to resolve the entries being compared.  If none of the tests
resolve the entries, the first entry encountered is retained.

startitem()
item(tt(files))(
The order of files (entries in the tt(mailcap) style) read.  Earlier
files are preferred.  (Note this does not resolve entries in the same file.)
)
item(tt(priority))(
The priority flag from the mailcap entry.  The priority is an integer
from 0 to 9 with the default value being 5.
)
item(tt(flags))(
The test given by the tt(mailcap-prio-flags) option is used to resolve
entries.
)
item(tt(place))(
Later entries are preferred; as the entries are strictly ordered, this
test always succeeds.
)
enditem()

Note that as this style is handled during initialisation, the context
is always tt(:mime:), with no discrimination by suffix.
)
kindex(mailcap-prio-flags, MIME style)
item(tt(mailcap-prio-flags))(
This style is used when the keyword tt(flags) is encountered in the
list of tests specified by the tt(mailcap-priorities) style.
It should be set to a list of patterns, each of which is tested against
the flags specified in the mailcap entry (in other words, the sets of
assignments found with some entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier
patterns in the list are preferred to later ones, and matched patterns
are preferred to unmatched ones.
)
kindex(mime-types, MIME style)
item(tt(mime-types))(
A list of files in the format of tt(~/.mime.types) and
tt(/etc/mime.types) to be read during setup, replacing the default list
which consists of those two files.  The context is tt(:mime:).
A tt(PLUS()) in the list will be replaced by the default files.
)
kindex(never-background, MIME style)
item(tt(never-background))(
If this boolean style is set, the handler for the given context is
always run in the foreground, even if the flags provided in the mailcap
entry suggest it need not be (for example, it doesn't require a
terminal).
)
kindex(pager, MIME style)
item(tt(pager))(
If set, will be used instead of tt($PAGER) or tt(more) to handle
suffixes where the tt(copiousoutput) flag is set.  The context is
as for tt(handler), i.e. tt(:mime:.)var(suffix)tt(:) for handling
a file with the given var(suffix).
)
enditem()

Examples:

example(zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal)

When tt(zsh-mime-setup) is subsequently run, it will look for
tt(mailcap) entries in the two files given.  Files of suffix tt(.txt)
will be handled by running `tt(less) var(file.txt)'.  The flag
tt(needsterminal) is set to show that this program must run attached to a
terminal.

As there are several steps to dispatching a command, the following
should be checked if attempting to execute a file by extension
tt(.)var(ext) does not have the expected effect.

The command `tt(alias -s) var(ext)' should show
`tt(ps=zsh-mime-handler)'.  If it shows something else, another suffix
alias was already installed and was not overwritten.  If it shows
nothing, no handler was installed:  this is most likely because no
handler was found in the tt(.mime.types) and tt(mailcap) combination for
tt(.ext) files.  In that case, appropriate handling should be added to
tt(~/.mime.types) and tt(mailcap).

If the extension is handled by tt(zsh-mime-handler) but the file is
not opened correctly, either the handler defined for the type is
incorrect, or the flags associated with it are in appropriate.  Running
tt(zsh-mime-setup -l) will show the handler and, if there are any, the
flags.  A tt(%s) in the handler is replaced by the file (suitably quoted
if necessary).  Check that the handler program listed lists and can
be run in the way shown.  Also check that the flags tt(needsterminal) or
tt(copiousoutput) are set if the handler needs to be run under a
terminal; the second flag is used if the output should be sent to a pager.
An example of a suitable tt(mailcap) entry for such a program is:

example(text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal)

Running `tt(zsh-mime-handler -l) var(command line)' prints the command
line that would be executed, simplified to remove the effect of any
flags, and quoted so that the output can be run as a complete zsh
command line.  This is used by the completion system to decide how to
complete after a file handled by tt(zsh-mime-setup).
)
findex(pick-web-browser)
item(tt(pick-web-browser))(
This function is separate from the two MIME functions described above
and can be assigned directly to a suffix:

example(autoload -U pick-web-browser
alias -s html=pick-web-browser)

It is provided as an intelligent front end to dispatch a web browser.
It may be run as either a function or a shell script.  The status
255 is returned if no browser could be started.

Various styles are available to customize the choice of browsers:

startitem()
item(tt(browser-style))(
The value of the style is an array giving preferences in decreasing order
for the type of browser to use.  The values of elements may be

startitem()
item(tt(running))(
Use a GUI browser that is already running when an X Window display is
available.  The browsers listed in the tt(x-browsers) style are tried
in order until one is found; if it is, the file will be displayed in
that browser, so the user may need to check whether it has appeared.
If no running browser is found, one is not started.  Browsers other than
Firefox, Opera and Konqueror are assumed to understand the Mozilla
syntax for opening a URL remotely.
)
item(tt(x))(
Start a new GUI browser when an X Window display is available.  Search for
the availability of one of the browsers listed in the tt(x-browsers) style
and start the first one that is found.  No check is made for an already
running browser.
)
item(tt(tty))(
Start a terminal-based browser.  Search for the availability of one
of the browsers listed in the tt(tty-browsers) style and start the
first one that is found.
)
enditem()

If the style is not set the default tt(running x tty) is used.
)
item(tt(x-browsers))(
An array in decreasing order
of preference of browsers to use when running under the X Window System.
The array consists of the command name under which to start the
browser.  They are looked up in the context tt(:mime:) (which may
be extended in future, so appending `tt(*)' is recommended).  For
example,

example(zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox)

specifies that tt(pick-web-browser) should first look for a running
instance of Opera, Konqueror or Firefox, in that order, and if it
fails to find any should attempt to start Opera.  The default is
tt(firefox mozilla netscape opera konqueror).
)
item(tt(tty-browsers))(
An array similar to tt(x-browsers), except that it gives browsers to
use when no X Window display is available.  The default is
tt(elinks links lynx).
)
item(tt(command))(
If it is set this style is used to pick the command
used to open a page for a browser.  The context is
tt(:mime:browser:new:$browser:) to start a new browser or
tt(:mime:browser:running:$browser:) to open a URL in a browser already
running on the current X display, where tt($browser) is the value matched
in the tt(x-browsers) or tt(tty-browsers) style.  The escape sequence
tt(%b) in the style's value will be replaced by the browser, while tt(%u)
will be replaced by the URL.  If the style is not set, the default for all
new instances is equivalent to tt(%b %u) and the defaults for using running
browsers are equivalent to the values tt(kfmclient openURL %u) for
Konqueror, tt(firefox -new-tab %u) for Firefox, tt(opera -newpage %u)
for Opera, and tt(%b -remote "openUrl+LPAR()%u+RPAR()") for all others.
)
enditem()
)
enditem()

texinode(Mathematical Functions)(User Configuration Functions)(MIME Functions)(User Contributions)
sect(Mathematical Functions)

startitem()
findex(zcalc)
item(tt(zcalc) [ tt(-erf) ] [ var(expression) ... ])(
A reasonably powerful calculator based on zsh's arithmetic evaluation
facility.  The syntax is similar to that of formulae in most programming
languages; see
ifzman(the section `Arithmetic Evaluation' in zmanref(zshmisc))\
ifnzman(noderef(Arithmetic Evaluation)) for details.

Non-programmers should note that, as in many other programming
languages, expressions involving only integers (whether constants
without a `tt(.)', variables containing such constants as strings, or
variables declared to be integers) are by default evaluated using
integer arithmetic, which is not how an ordinary desk calculator
operates.  To force floating point operation, pass the option tt(-f);
see further notes below.

If the file tt(~/.zcalcrc) exists it will be sourced inside the function
once it is set up and about to process the command line.  This
can be used, for example, to set shell options; tt(emulate -L zsh)
and tt(setopt extendedglob) are in effect at this point.  Any
failure to source the file if it exists is treated as fatal.
As with other initialisation files, the directory tt($ZDOTDIR) is used
instead of tt($HOME) if it is set.

The mathematical library tt(zsh/mathfunc) will be loaded if it is
available; see
ifzman(the section `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/mathfunc Module)).  The mathematical functions
correspond to the raw system libraries, so trigonometric functions are
evaluated using radians, and so on.

Each line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows a number,
which corresponds to a positional parameter where the result of that
calculation is stored.  For example, the result of the calculation on the
line preceded by `tt(4> )' is available as tt($4).  The last value
calculated is available as tt(ans).  Full command line editing, including
the history of previous calculations, is available; the history is saved in
the file tt(~/.zcalc_history).  To exit, enter a blank line or type `tt(:q)'
on its own (`tt(q)' is allowed for historical compatibility).

A line ending with a single backslash is treated in the same fashion
as it is in command line editing:  the backslash is removed, the
function prompts for more input (the prompt is preceded by `tt(...)'
to indicate this), and the lines are combined into one to get the final
result.  In addition, if the input so far contains more open than
close parentheses tt(zcalc) will prompt for more input.

If arguments are given to tt(zcalc) on start up, they are used to prime the
first few positional parameters.  A visual indication of this is given when
the calculator starts.

The constants tt(PI) (3.14159...) and tt(E) (2.71828...) are provided.
Parameter assignment is possible, but note that all parameters will be
put into the global namespace unless the tt(:local) special command is
used.  The function creates local variables whose names start with
tt(_), so users should avoid doing so.  The variables tt(ans) (the last
answer) and tt(stack) (the stack in RPN mode) may be referred to
directly; tt(stack) is an array but elements of it are numeric.  Various
other special variables are used locally with their standard meaning,
for example tt(compcontext), tt(match), tt(mbegin), tt(mend), tt(psvar).

The output base can be initialised by passing the option `tt(-#)var(base)',
for example `tt(zcalc -#16)' (the `tt(#)' may have to be quoted, depending
on the globbing options set).

If the option `tt(-e)' is set, the function runs non-interactively:
the arguments are treated as expressions to be evaluated as if entered
interactively line by line.

If the option `tt(-f)' is set, all numbers are treated as floating
point, hence for example the expression `tt(3/4)' evaluates to 0.75
rather than 0.  Options must appear in separate words.

If the option `tt(-r)' is set, RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) mode is
entered.  This has various additional properties:
startitem()
item(Stack)(
Evaluated values are maintained in a stack; this is contained in
an array named tt(stack) with the most recent value in tt(${stack[1]}).
)
item(Operators and functions)(
If the line entered matches an operator (tt(+), tt(-), tt(*),
tt(/), tt(**), tt(^), tt(|) or tt(&)) or a function supplied by the
tt(zsh/mathfunc) library, the bottom element or elements of the stack
are popped to use as the argument or arguments.  The higher elements
of stack (least recent) are used as earlier arguments.  The result is
then pushed into tt(${stack[1]}).
)
item(Expressions)(
Other expressions are evaluated normally, printed, and added to the
stack as numeric values.  The syntax within expressions on a single line
is normal shell arithmetic (not RPN).
)
item(Stack listing)(
If an integer follows the option tt(-r) with no space, then
on every evaluation that many elements of the stack, where available,
are printed instead of just the most recent result.  Hence, for example,
tt(zcalc -r4) shows tt($stack[4]) to tt($stack[1]) each time results
are printed.
)
item(Duplication: tt(=))(
The pseudo-operator tt(=) causes the most recent element of
the stack to be duplicated onto the stack.
)
item(tt(pop))(
The pseudo-function tt(pop) causes the most recent element of
the stack to be popped.  A `tt(>)' on its own has the same effect.
)
item(tt(>)var(ident))(
The expression tt(>) followed (with no space) by a shell identifier
causes the most recent element of the stack to be popped and
assigned to the variable with that name.  The variable is
local to the tt(zcalc) function.
)
item(tt(<)var(ident))(
The expression tt(<) followed (with no space) by a shell identifier
causes the value of the variable with that name to be pushed
onto the stack.  var(ident) may be an integer, in which
case the previous result with that number (as shown before
the tt(>) in the standard tt(zcalc) prompt) is put on the stack.
)
item(Exchange: tt(xy))(
The pseudo-function tt(xy) causes the most recent two elements of
the stack to be exchanged.  `tt(<>)' has the same effect.
)
enditem()

The prompt is configurable via the parameter tt(ZCALCPROMPT), which
undergoes standard prompt expansion.  The index of the current entry is
stored locally in the first element of the array tt(psvar), which can be
referred to in tt(ZCALCPROMPT) as `tt(%1v)'.  The default prompt is
`tt(%1v> )'.

The variable tt(ZCALC_ACTIVE) is set within the function and can
be tested by nested functions; it has the value tt(rpn) if RPN mode is
active, else 1.

A few special commands are available; these are introduced by a colon.
For backward compatibility, the colon may be omitted for certain
commands.  Completion is available if tt(compinit) has been run.

The output precision may be specified within zcalc by special commands
familiar from many calculators.
startitem()
item(tt(:norm))(
The default output format.  It corresponds to the printf tt(%g)
specification.  Typically this shows six decimal digits.
)
item(tt(:sci) var(digits))(
Scientific notation, corresponding to the printf tt(%g) output format with
the precision given by var(digits).  This produces either fixed point or
exponential notation depending on the value output.
)
item(tt(:fix) var(digits))(
Fixed point notation, corresponding to the printf tt(%f) output format with
the precision given by var(digits).
)
item(tt(:eng) var(digits))(
Exponential notation, corresponding to the printf tt(%E) output format with
the precision given by var(digits).
)
item(tt(:raw))(
Raw output:  this is the default form of the output from a math
evaluation.  This may show more precision than the number actually
possesses.
)
enditem()

Other special commands:
startitem()
item(tt(:!)var(line...))(
Execute var(line...) as a normal shell command line.  Note that it
is executed in the context of the function, i.e. with local variables.
Space is optional after tt(:!).
)
item(tt(:local) var(arg) ...)(
Declare variables local to the function.  Other variables
may be used, too, but they will be taken from or put into the global
scope.
)
item(tt(:function) var(name) [ var(body) ])(
Define a mathematical function or (with no var(body)) delete it.
tt(:function) may be abbreviated to tt(:func) or simply tt(:f).
The var(name) may contain the same characters as a shell function name.
The function is defined using tt(zmathfuncdef), see below.

Note that tt(zcalc) takes care of all quoting.  Hence for example:

example(:f cube $1 * $1 * $1)

defines a function to cube the sole argument.  Functions so defined, or
indeed any functions defined directly or indirectly using tt(functions
-M), are available to execute by typing only the name on the line in RPN
mode; this pops the appropriate number of arguments off the stack
to pass to the function, i.e. 1 in the case of the example tt(cube)
function.  If there are optional arguments only the mandatory
arguments are supplied by this means.
)
item(tt([#)var(base)tt(]))(
This is not a special command, rather part of normal arithmetic
syntax; however, when this form appears on a line by itself the default
output radix is set to var(base).  Use, for example, `tt([#16])' to display
hexadecimal output preceded by an indication of the base, or `tt([##16])'
just to display the raw number in the given base.  Bases themselves are
always specified in decimal. `tt([#])' restores the normal output format.
Note that setting an output base suppresses floating point output; use
`tt([#])' to return to normal operation.
)
item(tt($)var(var))(
Print out the value of var literally; does not affect the calculation.
To use the value of var, omit the leading `tt($)'.
)
enditem()

See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.
)
findex(max)
findex(min)
findex(sum)
findex(zmathfunc)
xitem(tt(min+LPAR())var(arg)tt(, ...+RPAR()))
xitem(tt(max+LPAR())var(arg)tt(, ...+RPAR()))
xitem(tt(sum+LPAR())var(arg)tt(, ...+RPAR()))
item(tt(zmathfunc))(
The function tt(zmathfunc) defines the three mathematical functions
tt(min), tt(max), and tt(sum).  The functions tt(min) and tt(max) take
one or more arguments.  The function tt(sum) takes zero or more arguments.
Arguments can be of different types (ints and floats).

Not to be confused with the tt(zsh/mathfunc) module, described in
ifzman(the section `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/mathfunc Module)).
)
findex(zmathfuncdef)
item(tt(zmathfuncdef) [ var(mathfunc) [ var(body) ] ])(
A convenient front end to tt(functions -M).

With two arguments, define a mathematical function named var(mathfunc)
which can be used in any form of arithmetic evaluation.  var(body)
is a mathematical expression to implement the function.  It may
contain references to position parameters tt($1), tt($2), ...
to refer to mandatory parameters and tt(${1:-)var(defvalue)tt(}) ...
to refer to optional parameters.  Note that the forms must be
strictly adhered to for the function to calculate the correct number
of arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell function named
tt(zsh_math_func_)var(mathfunc); usually the user will not need
to refer to the shell function directly.  Any existing function
of the same name is silently replaced.

With one argument, remove the mathematical function var(mathfunc)
as well as the shell function implementation.

With no arguments, list all var(mathfunc) functions in a form
suitable for restoring the definition.
The functions have not necessarily been defined by tt(zmathfuncdef).
)
enditem()

texinode(User Configuration Functions)(Other Functions)(Mathematical Functions)(User Contributions)
sect(User Configuration Functions)

The tt(zsh/newuser) module comes with a function to aid in configuring
shell options for new users.  If the module is installed, this function can
also be run by hand.  It is available even if the module's default
behaviour, namely running the function for a new user logging in without
startup files, is inhibited.

startitem()
item(tt(zsh-newuser-install) [ tt(-f) ])(
The function presents the user with various options for customizing
their initialization scripts.  Currently only tt(~/.zshrc) is handled.
tt($ZDOTDIR/.zshrc) is used instead if the parameter tt(ZDOTDIR) is
set; this provides a way for the user to configure a file without
altering an existing tt(.zshrc).

By default the function exits immediately if it finds any of the files
tt(.zshenv), tt(.zprofile), tt(.zshrc), or tt(.zlogin) in the appropriate
directory.  The option tt(-f) is required in order to force the function
to continue.  Note this may happen even if tt(.zshrc) itself does not
exist.

As currently configured, the function will exit immediately if the
user has root privileges; this behaviour cannot be overridden.

Once activated, the function's behaviour is supposed to be
self-explanatory.  Menus are present allowing the user to alter
the value of options and parameters.  Suggestions for improvements are
always welcome.

When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save the new
file or not; changes are not irreversible until this point.  However,
the script is careful to restrict changes to the file only to a group
marked by the lines `tt(# Lines configured by zsh-newuser-install)' and
`tt(# End of lines configured by zsh-newuser-install)'.  In addition,
the old version of tt(.zshrc) is saved to a file with the suffix
tt(.zni) appended.

If the function edits an existing tt(.zshrc), it is up to the user
to ensure that the changes made will take effect.  For example, if
control usually returns early from the existing tt(.zshrc) the lines
will not be executed; or a later initialization file may override
options or parameters, and so on.  The function itself does not attempt to
detect any such conflicts.
)
enditem()

texinode(Other Functions)()(User Configuration Functions)(User Contributions)
sect(Other Functions)

There are a large number of helpful functions in the tt(Functions/Misc)
directory of the zsh distribution.  Most are very simple and do not
require documentation here, but a few are worthy of special mention.

subsect(Descriptions)

startitem()
findex(colors)
item(tt(colors))(
This function initializes several associative arrays to map color names to
(and from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal codes.  These are used
by the prompt theme system (ifzman(see above)\
ifnzman(noderef(Prompt Themes))).  You seldom should need to run
tt(colors) more than once.

The eight base colors are: tt(black), tt(red), tt(green), tt(yellow),
tt(blue), tt(magenta), tt(cyan), and tt(white).  Each of these has codes for
foreground and background.  In addition there are seven intensity attributes:
tt(bold), tt(faint), tt(standout), tt(underline), tt(blink), tt(reverse),
and tt(conceal).  Finally, there are seven codes used to negate attributes:
tt(none) (reset all attributes to the defaults), tt(normal)
(neither bold nor faint), tt(no-standout), tt(no-underline), tt(no-blink),
tt(no-reverse), and tt(no-conceal).

Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and intensities.

The associative arrays are:

startitem()
xitem(tt(color))
item(tt(colour))(
Map all the color names to their integer codes, and integer codes to the
color names.  The eight base names map to the foreground color codes, as
do names prefixed with `tt(fg-)', such as `tt(fg-red)'.  Names prefixed
with `tt(bg-)', such as `tt(bg-blue)', refer to the background codes.  The
reverse mapping from code to color yields base name for foreground codes
and the tt(bg-) form for backgrounds.

Although it is a misnomer to call them `colors', these arrays also map the
other fourteen attributes from names to codes and codes to names.
)
xitem(tt(fg))
xitem(tt(fg_bold))
item(tt(fg_no_bold))(
Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences that set
the corresponding foreground text properties.  The tt(fg) sequences change
the color without changing the eight intensity attributes.
)
xitem(tt(bg))
xitem(tt(bg_bold))
item(tt(bg_no_bold))(
Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences that set
the corresponding background properties.  The tt(bg) sequences change the
color without changing the eight intensity attributes.
)
enditem()

In addition, the scalar parameters tt(reset_color) and tt(bold_color) are
set to the ANSI terminal escapes that turn off all attributes and turn on
bold intensity, respectively.
)
findex(fned)
item(tt(fned) [ tt(-x) var(num) ] var(name))(
Same as tt(zed -f).  This function does not appear in the zsh
distribution, but can be created by linking tt(zed) to the name tt(fned)
in some directory in your tt(fpath).
)
findex(is-at-least)
item(tt(is-at-least) var(needed) [ var(present) ])(
Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings having the
format of a zsh version number; that is, a string of numbers and text with
segments separated by dots or dashes.  If the var(present) string is not
provided, tt($ZSH_VERSION) is used.  Segments are paired left-to-right in
the two strings with leading non-number parts ignored.  If one string has
fewer segments than the other, the missing segments are considered zero.

This is useful in startup files to set options and other state that are
not available in all versions of zsh.

example(is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here.")
)
findex(nslookup)
item(tt(nslookup) [ var(arg) ... ])(
This wrapper function for the tt(nslookup) command requires the
tt(zsh/zpty) module (see
ifzman(zmanref(zshmodules))\
ifnzman(noderef(The zsh/zpty Module))\
).  It behaves exactly like the standard tt(nslookup)
except that it provides customizable prompts (including a right-side
prompt) and completion of nslookup commands, host names, etc. (if you use
the function-based completion system).  Completion styles may be set with
the context prefix `tt(:completion:nslookup)'.

See also the tt(pager), tt(prompt) and tt(rprompt) styles below.
)
findex(regexp-replace)
item(tt(regexp-replace) var(var) var(regexp) var(replace))(
Use regular expressions to perform a global search and replace operation
on a variable.  POSIX extended regular expressions are used,
unless the option tt(RE_MATCH_PCRE) has been set, in which case
Perl-compatible regular expressions are used
(this requires the shell to be linked against the tt(pcre)
library).

var(var) is the name of the variable containing the string to be matched.
The variable will be modified directly by the function.  The
variables tt(MATCH), tt(MBEGIN), tt(MEND), tt(match), tt(mbegin), tt(mend)
should be avoided as these are used by the regular expression code.

var(regexp) is the regular expression to match against the string.

var(replace) is the replacement text.  This can contain parameter, command
and arithmetic expressions which will be replaced:  in particular, a
reference to tt($MATCH) will be replaced by the text matched by the pattern.

The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else 1.
)
findex(run-help)
item(tt(run-help) var(cmd))(
This function is designed to be invoked by the tt(run-help) ZLE widget,
in place of the default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line Help'
ifzman(above)\
ifnzman((noderef(Utilities))) for setup instructions.

In the discussion which follows, if var(cmd) is a file system path, it is
first reduced to its rightmost component (the file name).

Help is first sought by looking for a file named var(cmd) in the directory
named by the tt(HELPDIR) parameter.  If no file is found, an assistant
function, alias, or command named tt(run-help-var(cmd)) is sought.  If
found, the assistant is executed with the rest of the current command line
(everything after the command name var(cmd)) as its arguments.  When
neither file nor assistant is found, the external command
`tt(man) var(cmd)' is run.

An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

example(run-help-ssh+LPAR()RPAR() {
    emulate -LR zsh
    local -a args
    # Delete the "-l username" option
    zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
    # Delete other options, leaving: host command
    args=(${@:#-*})
    if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
        man ssh
    else
        run-help $args[2]
    fi
})

Several of these assistants are provided in the tt(Functions/Misc)
directory.  These must be autoloaded, or placed as executable scripts in
your search path, in order to be found and used by tt(run-help).

startitem()
findex(run-help-btrfs)
findex(run-help-git)
findex(run-help-ip)
findex(run-help-openssl)
findex(run-help-p4)
findex(run-help-sudo)
findex(run-help-svk)
findex(run-help-svn)
xitem(tt(run-help-btrfs))
xitem(tt(run-help-git))
xitem(tt(run-help-ip))
xitem(tt(run-help-openssl))
xitem(tt(run-help-p4))
xitem(tt(run-help-sudo))
xitem(tt(run-help-svk))
item(tt(run-help-svn))(
Assistant functions for the
tt(btrfs),
tt(git),
tt(ip),
tt(openssl),
tt(p4),
tt(sudo),
tt(svk),
and 
tt(svn),
commands.
)
enditem()
)
item(tt(tetris))(
Zsh was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs,
because it lacked a Tetris game.  This function was written to
refute this vicious slander.

This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

example(autoload -U tetris
zle -N tetris
bindkey var(keys) tetris)

To start a game, execute the widget by typing the var(keys).  Whatever command
line you were editing disappears temporarily, and your keymap is also
temporarily replaced by the Tetris control keys.  The previous editor state
is restored when you quit the game (by pressing `tt(q)') or when you lose.

If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the tt(tetris)
widget will continue where you left off.  If you lost, it will start a new
game.
)
item(tt(tetriscurses))(
This is a port of the above to zcurses.  The input handling is improved
a bit so that moving a block sideways doesn't automatically advance a
timestep, and the graphics use unicode block graphics.

This version does not save the game state between invocations, and is not
invoked as a widget, but rather as:

example(autoload -U tetriscurses
tetriscurses)
)
findex(zargs)
item(tt(zargs) [ var(option) ... tt(-)tt(-) ] [ var(input) ... ] [ tt(-)tt(-) var(command) [ var(arg) ... ] ])(
This function has a similar purpose to GNU xargs.  Instead of
reading lines of arguments from the standard input, it takes them from
the command line.  This is useful because zsh, especially with recursive
glob operators, often can construct a command line for a shell function
that is longer than can be accepted by an external command.

The var(option) list represents options of the tt(zargs) command itself,
which are the same as those of tt(xargs).  The var(input) list is the
collection of strings (often file names) that become the arguments of the
tt(command), analogous to the standard input of tt(xargs).  Finally, the
var(arg) list consists of those arguments (usually options) that are
passed to the var(command) each time it runs.  The var(arg) list precedes
the elements from the tt(input) list in each run.  If no var(command) is
provided, then no var(arg) list may be provided, and in that event the
default command is `tt(print)' with arguments `tt(-r -)tt(-)'.

For example, to get a long tt(ls) listing of all non-hidden plain files
in the current directory or its subdirectories:

example(autoload -U zargs
zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -ld --)

The first and third occurrences of `tt(-)tt(-)' are used to mark the end
of options for tt(zargs) and tt(ls) respectively to guard against
filenames starting with `tt(-)', while the second is used to separate the
list of files from the command to run (`tt(ls -ld --)').

The first `tt(-)tt(-)' would also be needed if there was a chance the
list might be empty as in:

example(zargs -r -- ./*.back+LPAR()#qN+RPAR() -- rm -f)

In the event that the string `tt(-)tt(-)' is or may be an var(input), the
tt(-e) option may be used to change the end-of-inputs marker.  Note that
this does em(not) change the end-of-options marker.  For example, to use
`tt(..)' as the marker:

example(zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -ld --)

This is a good choice in that example because no plain file can be named
`tt(..)', but the best end-marker depends on the circumstances.

The options tt(-i), tt(-I), tt(-l), tt(-L), and tt(-n) differ slightly
from their usage in tt(xargs).  There are no input lines for tt(zargs) to
count, so tt(-l) and tt(-L) count through the var(input) list, and tt(-n)
counts the number of arguments passed to each execution of var(command),
em(including) any var(arg) list.  Also, any time tt(-i) or tt(-I) is used,
each var(input) is processed separately as if by `tt(-L) tt(1)'.

For details of the other tt(zargs) options, see the manref(xargs)(1) man page (but note
the difference in function between tt(zargs) and tt(xargs)) or run
tt(zargs) with the tt(-)tt(-help) option.
)
findex(zed)
xitem(tt(zed) [ tt(-f) [ tt(-x) var(num) ] ] var(name))
item(tt(zed -b))(
This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

Only one var(name) argument is allowed.
If the tt(-f) option is given, the name is taken to be that of
a function; if the function is marked for autoloading, tt(zed) searches
for it in the tt(fpath) and loads it.  Note that functions edited this way
are installed into the current shell, but em(not) written back to the
autoload file.  In this case the tt(-x) option specifies that leading
tabs indenting the function according to syntax should be converted into
the given number of spaces; `tt(-x 2)' is consistent with the layout
of functions distributed with the shell.

Without tt(-f), var(name) is the path name of the file to edit, which need
not exist; it is created on write, if necessary.

While editing, the function sets the main keymap to tt(zed) and the
vi command keymap to tt(zed-vicmd).  These will be copied from the existing
tt(main) and tt(vicmd) keymaps if they do not exist the first time tt(zed)
is run.  They can be used to provide special key bindings used only in zed.

If it creates the keymap, tt(zed) rebinds the return key to insert a line
break and `tt(^X^W)' to accept the edit in the tt(zed) keymap, and binds
`tt(ZZ)' to accept the edit in the tt(zed-vicmd) keymap.

The bindings alone can be installed by running `tt(zed -b)'.  This is
suitable for putting into a startup file.  Note that, if rerun,
this will overwrite the existing tt(zed) and tt(zed-vicmd) keymaps.

Completion is available, and styles may be set with the context prefix
`tt(:completion:zed)'.

A zle widget tt(zed-set-file-name) is available.  This can be called by
name from within zed using `tt(\ex zed-set-file-name)' (note, however, that
because of zed's rebindings you will have to type tt(^j) at the end instead
of the return key), or can be bound to a key in either of the tt(zed) or
tt(zed-vicmd) keymaps after `tt(zed -b)' has been run.  When the widget is
called, it prompts for a new name for the file being edited.  When zed
exits the file will be written under that name and the original file will
be left alone.  The widget has no effect with `tt(zed -f)'.

While tt(zed-set-file-name) is running, zed uses the keymap
tt(zed-normal-keymap), which is linked from the main keymap in effect
at the time zed initialised its bindings.  (This is to make the return key
operate normally.)  The result is that if the main keymap has been changed,
the widget won't notice.  This is not a concern for most users.
)
findex(zcp)
findex(zln)
xitem(tt(zcp) [ tt(-finqQvwW) ] var(srcpat) var(dest))
item(tt(zln) [ tt(-finqQsvwW) ] var(srcpat) var(dest))(
Same as tt(zmv -C) and tt(zmv -L), respectively.  These functions do not
appear in the zsh distribution, but can be created by linking tt(zmv) to
the names tt(zcp) and tt(zln) in some directory in your tt(fpath).
)
item(tt(zkbd))(
See `Keyboard Definition'
ifzman(above)\
ifnzman((noderef(Utilities))).
)
findex(zmv)
redef(SPACES)(0)(tt(ifztexi(NOTRANS(@ @ @ @ ))ifnztexi(    )))
xitem(tt(zmv) [ tt(-finqQsvwW) ] [ tt(-C) | tt(-L) | tt(-M) | -{tt(p)|tt(P)} var(program) ] [ tt(-o) var(optstring) ])
item(SPACES()var(srcpat) var(dest) )(
Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern var(srcpat) to
corresponding files having names of the form given by var(dest), where
var(srcpat) contains parentheses surrounding patterns which will be
replaced in turn by tt($1), tt($2), ... in var(dest).  For example,

example(zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt')

renames `tt(foo.lis)' to `tt(foo.txt)', `tt(my.old.stuff.lis)' to
`tt(my.old.stuff.txt)', and so on.

The pattern is always treated as an tt(EXTENDED_GLOB) pattern.  Any file
whose name is not changed by the substitution is simply ignored.  Any
error (a substitution resulted in an empty string, two substitutions gave
the same result, the destination was an existing regular file and tt(-f)
was not given) causes the entire function to abort without doing
anything.

In addition to pattern replacement, the variable tt($f) can be referred
to in the second (replacement) argument.  This makes it possible to
use variable substitution to alter the argument; see examples below.

Options:

startsitem()
sitem(tt(-f))(Force overwriting of destination files.  Not currently
passed down to the tt(mv)/tt(cp)/tt(ln) command due to vagaries of
implementations (but you can use tt(-o-f) to do that).)
sitem(tt(-i))(Interactive: show each line to be executed and ask the user
whether to execute it.  `tt(Y)' or `tt(y)' will execute it, anything else will
skip it.  Note that you just need to type one character.)
sitem(tt(-n))(No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.)
sitem(tt(-q))(Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now assumed by default, so
this has no effect.)
sitem(tt(-Q))(Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless
you are actually using glob qualifiers in a pattern.)
sitem(tt(-s))(Symbolic, passed down to tt(ln); only works with tt(-L).)
sitem(tt(-v))(Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.)
sitem(tt(-w))(Pick out wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above,
and implicitly add parentheses for referring to them.)
sitem(tt(-W))(Just like tt(-w), with the addition of turning wildcards in
the replacement pattern into sequential tt(${1}) .. tt(${N}) references.)
sxitem(tt(-C))
sxitem(tt(-L))
sitem(tt(-M))(Force tt(cp), tt(ln) or tt(mv), respectively, regardless of
the name of the function.)
sitem(tt(-p) var(program))(Call var(program) instead of tt(cp), tt(ln) or
tt(mv).  Whatever it does, it should at least understand the form
ifzman(`var(program) tt(-)tt(-) var(oldname) var(newname)')\
ifnzman(example(var(program) tt(-)tt(-) var(oldname) var(newname)))
where var(oldname) and var(newname) are filenames generated by tt(zmv).
var(program) will be split into words, so might be e.g. the name
of an archive tool plus a copy or rename subcommand.)
sitem(tt(-P) var(program))(As tt(-p) var(program), except that
var(program) does not accept a following tt(-)tt(-) to indicate the
end of options.  In this case filenames must already be in a sane
form for the program in question.)
sitem(tt(-o) var(optstring))(The var(optstring) is split into words and
passed down verbatim to the tt(cp), tt(ln) or tt(mv) command called to
perform the work.  It should probably begin with a `tt(-)'.)
endsitem()

Further examples:

example(zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}')

For any file in the current directory with at least one space in the name,
replace every space by an underscore and display the commands executed.

example(zmv -v '* *' '${f// /_}')

This does exactly the same by referring to the file name stored in tt($f).

For more complete examples and other implementation details, see the
tt(zmv) source file, usually located in one of the directories named in
your tt(fpath), or in tt(Functions/Misc/zmv) in the zsh distribution.
)
item(tt(zrecompile))(
See `Recompiling Functions'
ifzman(above)\
ifnzman((noderef(Utilities))).
)
findex(zstyle+)
item(tt(zstyle+) var(context) var(style) var(value) [ tt(+) var(subcontext) var(style) var(value) ... ])(
This makes defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `tt(+)' as a
special token that allows you to append a context name to the previously
used context name.  Like this:

example(zstyle+ ':foo:bar' var(style1) var(value1) \ 
      + ':baz'     var(style2) var(value2) \ 
      + ':frob'    var(style3) var(value3))

This defines var(style1) with var(value1) for the context tt(:foo:bar) as usual,
but it also defines var(style2) with var(value2) for the context
tt(:foo:bar:baz) and var(style3) with var(value3) for tt(:foo:bar:frob).  Any
var(subcontext) may be the empty string to re-use the first context
unchanged.
)
enditem()

subsect(Styles)

startitem()
kindex(insert-tab, completion style)
item(tt(insert-tab))(
The tt(zed) function em(sets) this style in context `tt(:completion:zed:*)'
to turn off completion when tt(TAB) is typed at the beginning of a line.
You may override this by setting your own value for this context and style.
)
kindex(pager, nslookup style)
item(tt(pager))(
The tt(nslookup) function looks up this style in the context
`tt(:nslookup)' to determine the program used to display output that does
not fit on a single screen.
)
kindex(prompt, nslookup style)
kindex(rprompt, nslookup style)
xitem(tt(prompt))
item(tt(rprompt))(
The tt(nslookup) function looks up this style in the context
`tt(:nslookup)' to set the prompt and the right-side prompt, respectively.
The usual expansions for the tt(PS1) and tt(RPS1) parameters may be used
(see
ifzman(EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zmanref(zshmisc))\
ifnzman(noderef(Prompt Expansion))\
).
)
enditem()