|author||Tanaka Akira <email@example.com>||1999-04-25 15:43:41 +0000|
|committer||Tanaka Akira <firstname.lastname@example.org>||1999-04-25 15:43:41 +0000|
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+texinode(Zftp Function System)()(Completion System)(Top)
+chapter(Zftp Function System)
+cindex(zftp, function system)
+This describes the set of shell functions supplied with the source
+distribution as an interface to the tt(zftp) builtin command, allowing you
+to perform FTP operations from the shell command line or within functions
+or scripts. The interface is similar to a traditional FTP client (e.g. the
+manref(ftp)(1) command itself), but as it is entirely done within the shell
+all the familar completion, editing and globbing features, and so on, are
+present, and macros are particularly simple to write as they are just
+ordinary shell functions.
+The prerequisite is that the tt(zftp) command, as described in
+noderef(The zftp Module)
+), must be available in the
+version of tt(zsh) installed at your site. If the shell is configured to
+load new commands at run time, it probably is: typing tt(zmodload zftp)
+will make sure (if that runs silently, it has worked). If this is not the
+case, it is possible tt(zftp) was linked into the shell anyway: to test
+this, type tt(which zftp) and if tt(zftp) is available you will get the
+message tt(zftp: shell built-in command).
+Commands given directly with tt(zftp) builtin may be interspersed between
+the functions in this suite; in a few cases, using tt(zftp) directly may
+cause some of the status information stored in shell parameters to become
+invalid. Note in particular the description of the variables
+tt($ZFTP_TMOUT), tt($ZFTP_PREFS) and tt($ZFTP_VERBOSE) for tt(zftp).
+texinode(Installation)(Zftp Functions)()(Zftp Function System)
+You should make sure all the functions from the tt(Functions/Zftp)
+directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with the
+two letters tt(zf). They may already have been installed on your system;
+otherwise, you will need to find them and copy them. The directory should
+appear as one of the elements of the tt($fpath) array, and the functions
+should be autoloaded. Finally, to initialise the use of the system you
+need to call the tt(zfinit) function. The following code in your
+tt(.zshrc) will arrange for this; assume the functions are stored in the
+Note that tt(zfinit) assumes you are using the tt(zmodload) method to
+load the tt(zftp) command. If it is already built into the shell, change
+tt(zfinit) to tt(zfinit -n).
+texinode(Zftp Functions)(Miscellaneous Features)(Installation)(Zftp Function System)
+The sequence of operations in performing a file transfer is essentially the
+same as that in a standard FTP client.
+subsect(Opening a connection)
+item(tt(zfparams [ var(host) [ var(user) [ var(password) ... ] ] ]))(
+Set or show the parameters for a future tt(zfopen) with no arguments. If
+no arguments are given, the current parameters are displayed (the password
+will be shown as a line of asterisks). If a host is given, and either the
+var(user) or var(password) is not, they will be prompted for; also, any
+parameter given as `tt(?)' will be prompted for.
+As tt(zfopen) calls tt(zfparams) to store the parameters, this usually need
+not be called directly.
+item(tt(zfopen [ -1 ] [ var(host) [ var(user) [ var(password) [ var(account) ] ] ] ]))(
+If var(host) is present, open a connection to that host under username
+var(user) with password var(password) (and, on the rare occasions when it
+is necessary account var(account)). If a necessary parameter is missing or
+given as `tt(?)' it will be prompted for. If var(host) is not present, use
+a previously stored set of parameters.
+If the command was successful, and the terminal is an tt(xterm), a summary
+will appear in the title bar, giving the local tt(host:directory) and the
+remote tt(host:directory); this is handled by the function tt(zftp_chpwd),
+Normally, the var(host), var(user) and var(password) are internally
+recorded for later re-opening, either by a tt(zfopen) with no arguments, or
+automatically (see below). With the option tt(-1), no information is
+item(tt(zfanon [ -1 ] var(host)))(
+Open a connection var(host) for anonymous FTP. The username used is
+tt(anonymous). The password (which will be reported the first time) is
+generated from var(user)tt(@)tt(host); this is then stored in the shell
+parameter tt($EMAIL_ADDR) which can alternatively be set manually to a
+xitem(tt(zfcd [ var(dir) ]))
+item(tt(zfcd var(old) var(new)))(
+Change the current directory on the remote server: this is implemented to
+have many of the features of the shell builtin tt(cd).
+In the first form with var(dir) present, change to the directory var(dir).
+The command tt(zfcd ..) is treated specially, so is guaranteed to work on
+non-UNIX servers (note this is handled internall by tt(zftp)). If var(dir)
+is omitted, has the effect of tt(zfcd ~).
+The second form changes to the directory previously current.
+The third form attempts to change the current directory by replacing the
+first occurrence of the string var(old) with the string var(new) in the
+Note that in this command, and indeed anywhere a remote filename is
+expected, the string which on the local host corresponds to tt(~) is
+converted back to a tt(~) before being passed to the remote machine.
+This is convenient because of the way expansion is performed on the command
+line before tt(zfcd) receives a string. For example, suppose the command
+is tt(zfcd ~/foo). The shell will expand this to a full path as in tt(zfcd
+/home/user2/pws/foo). At this stage, tt(zfcd) recognises the initial path
+as tt(~), and the directory sent to the remote host is tt(~/foo), so that
+the tt(~) will be expanded by the server to the correct remote host
+directory. Other named directories of the form tt(~name) are not treated
+in this fashion.
+Change directory on the remote server to the one corresponding to the
+current local directory, with special handling of tt(~) as in tt(zfcd).
+For example, if the current local directory is tt(~/foo/bar), then
+tt(zfhere) performs the effect of tt(zfcd ~/foo/bar).
+item(tt(zfdir [ -rfd ] [ - ] [ var(dir-options) ] [ var(dir) ]))(
+Produce a long directory listing. The arguments var(dir-options) and
+var(dir) are passed directly to the server and their effect is
+implementation dependent, but specifying a particular remote directory
+var(dir) is usually possible. The output is passed through pager.
+The directory is usually cached for re-use. In fact, two caches are
+maintained. One is for use when there is no var(dir-options) or var(dir),
+i.e. a full listing of the current remote directory; it is flushed
+when the current remote directory changes. The other is
+kept for repeated use of tt(zfdir) with the same arguments; for example,
+repeated use of tt(zfdir /pub/gnu) will only require the directory to be
+retrieved on the first call. Alternatively, this cache can be re-viewed with
+the tt(-r) option. As relative directories will confuse
+tt(zfdir), the tt(-f) option can be used to force the cache to be flushed.
+Also, the option tt(-d) will delete both caches without showing a directory
+item(tt(zfls) [ var(ls-options) ] [ var(dir) ])(
+List files on the remote server. With no arguments, this will produce a
+simple list of file names for the current remote directory. Any arguments
+are passed directory to the server. No pager and no caching is used.
+item(tt(zftype) [ var(type) ])(
+With no arguments, show the type of data to be transferred, usually ASCII
+or binary. With an argument, change the type: the types tt(A) or
+tt(ASCII) for ASCII data and tt(B) or tt(BINARY), tt(I) or tt(IMAGE) for
+binary data are understood case-insensitively.
+item(tt(zfstat) [ -v ])(
+Show the status of the current or last connection, as well as the status of
+some of tt(zftp)'s status variables. With the tt(-v) option, a more
+verbose listing is produced by querying the server for its version of
+The commands for retrieving files all take at least two options. tt(-G)
+suppresses remote filename expansion which would otherwise be performed
+(see below for a more detailed description of that). tt(-t) attempts
+to set the modification time of the local file to that of the remote file:
+this requires version 5 of tt(perl), see the description of the function
+tt(zfrtime) below for more information.
+item(tt(zfget [ -Gt ] var(file1) ...))(
+Retrieve all the listed files var(file1) ... one at a time from the remote
+server. If a file contains a `tt(/)', the full name is passed to the
+remote server, but the file is stored locally under the name given by the
+part after the final `tt(/)'.
+item(tt(zfuget [ -Gvst ] var(file1) ...))(
+As tt(zfget), but only retrieve files where the version on the remote
+server is newer (has a later modification time), or where the local file
+does not exist. If the remote file is older but the files have different
+sizes, or if the sizes are the same but the remote file is newer, the user
+will usually be queried. With the option tt(-s), the command runs silently
+and will always retrieve the file in either of those two cases. With the
+option tt(-v), the command prints more information about the files while it
+is working out whether or not to transfer them.
+item(tt(zfcget [ -Gt ] var(file1) ...))(
+As tt(zfget), but if any of the local files exists, and is shorter than
+the corresponding remote file, the command assumes that it is the result of
+a partially completed transfer and attempts to transfer the rest of the
+file. This is useful on a poor connection which keeps failing.
+Note that this requires a commonly implemented, but non-standard, version
+of the FTP protocol, so is not guaranteed to work on all servers.
+xitem(tt(zfgcp [ -Gt ] var(remote-file) var(local-file)))
+item(tt(zfgcp [ -Gt ] var(rfile1) ... var(ldir)))(
+This retrieves files from the remote server with arguments behaving
+similarly to the tt(cp) command.
+In the first form, copy var(remote-file) from the server to the local file
+In the second form, copy all the remote files var(rfile1) ... into the
+local directory var(ldir) retaining the same basenames. This assumes UNIX
+item(tt(zfput var(file1) ...))(
+Send all the var(file1) ... given separately to the remote server. If a
+filename contains a `tt(/)', the full filename is used locally to find the
+file, but only the basename is used for the remote file name.
+item(tt(zfuput [ -vs ] var(file1) ...))(
+As tt(zfput), but only send files which are newer than their local
+equivalents, or if the remote file does not exist. The logic is the same
+as for tt(zfuget), but reversed between local and remote files.
+item(tt(zfcput var(file1) ...))(
+As tt(zfput), but if any remote file already exists and is shorter than the
+local equivalent, assume it is the result of an incomplete transfer and
+send the rest of the file to append to the existing part. As the FTP
+append command is part of the standard set, this is in principle more
+likely to work than tt(zfcget).
+xitem(tt(zfpcp var(local-file) var(remote-file)))
+item(tt(zfpcp var(lfile1) ... var(rdir)))(
+This sends files to the remote server with arguments behaving similarly to
+the tt(cp) command.
+With two arguments, copy var(local-file) to the server as
+With more than two arguments, copy all the local files var(lfile1) ... into
+the existing remote directory var(rdir) retaining the same basenames. This
+assumes UNIX directory semantics.
+A problem arises if you attempt to use tt(zfpcp) var(lfile1) var(rdir),
+i.e. the second form of copying but with two arguments, as the command has
+no simple way of knowing if var(rdir) corresponds to a directory or a
+filename. It attempts to resolve this in various ways. First, if the
+var(rdir) argument is tt(.) or tt(..) or ends in a slash, it is assumed to
+be a directory. Secondly, if the operation of copying to a remote file in
+the first form failed, and the remote server sends back the expected
+failure code 553 and a reply including the string `tt(Is a directory)',
+then tt(zfpcp) will retry using the second form.
+subsect(Closing the connectino)
+Close the connection.
+Mostly, these functions will not be called directly (apart from
+tt(zfinit)), but are described here for completeness. You may wish to
+alter tt(zftp_chpwd) and tt(zftp_progress), in particular.
+item(tt(zfinit [ -n ]))(
+As decribed above, this is used to initialise the zftp function system.
+The tt(-n) option should be used if the zftp command is already built into
+item(tt(zfautocheck [ -dn ]))(
+This function is called to implement automatic reopening behaviour, as
+described in more detail below. The options must appear in the first
+argument; tt(-n) prevents the command from changing to the old directory,
+while tt(-d) prevents it from setting the variable tt(do_close), which it
+otherwise does as a flag for automatically closing the connection after a
+transfer. The host and directory for the last session are stored in the
+variable tt($zflastsession), but the internal host/user/password parameters
+must also be correctly set.
+item(tt(zfcd_match var(prefix) var(suffix)))(
+This performs matching for completion of remote directory names. If the
+remote server is UNIX, it will attempt to persuade the server to list the
+remote directory with subdirectories marked, which usually works but is not
+guaranteed. On other hosts it simply calls tt(zfget_match) and hence
+completes all files, not just directories. On some systems, directories
+may not even look like filenames.
+item(tt(zfget_match var(prefix) var(suffix)))(
+This performs matching for completion of remote filenames. It caches files
+for the current directory (only) in the shell parameter tt($zftp_fcache).
+It is in the form to be called by the tt(-K) option of tt(compctl), but
+also works when called from a widget-style completion function with
+var(prefix) and var(suffix) set appropriately.
+Perform remote globbing, as describes in more detail below. var(varname)
+is the name of a variable containing the pattern to be expanded; if there
+were any matches, the same variable will be set to the exanded set of
+filenames on return.
+item(tt(zfrtime var(lfile) var(rfile) [ var(time) ]))(
+Set the local file var(lfile) to have the same modification time as the
+remote file var(rfile), or the explicit time var(time) in FTP format
+tt(CCYYMMDDhhmmSS) for the GMT timezone.
+Currently this requires tt(perl) version 5 to perform the conversion from
+GMT to local time. This is unfortunately difficult to do using shell code
+This function is called every time a connection is opened, or closed, or
+the remote directory changes. This version alters the title bar of an
+tt(xterm) or tt(sun-cmd) terminal emulator to reflect the local and remote
+hostnames and current directories. It works best when combined with the
+function tt(chpwd). In particular, a function of the form
+nofill( if [[ -n $ZFTP_USER ]]; then)
+nofill( # usual chpwd e.g put host:directory in title bar)
+fits in well.
+This function shows the status of the transfer as the percentage of the
+total so far transferred. It will not write anything unless the output is
+going to a terminal; however, if you transfer files in the background, you
+should tt(unfunction) this first. (Background file transfers don't work on
+all OSes.) Note also that if you alter it, any output em(must) be to
+standard error, as standard output may be a file being received.
+texinode(Miscellaneous Features)()(Zftp Functions)(Zftp Function System)
+The commands for retrieving files usually perform filename expansion
+(globbing) on their arguments; this can be turned off by passing the option
+tt(-G) to each of the commands. Normally this operates by retrieving a
+complete list of files for the directory in question, then matching these
+locally against the pattern supplied. This has the advantage that the full
+range of zsh patterns (respecting the setting of the option
+tt(EXTENDED_GLOB)) can be used. However, it means that the directory part
+of a filename will not be expanded and must be given exactly. If the
+remote server does not support the UNIX directory semantics, directory
+handling is problematic and it is recommended that globbing only be used
+within the current directory. The list of files in the current directory,
+if retrieved, will be cached, so that subsequent globs in the same
+directory without an interventing tt(zfcd) are fast.
+If the variable tt($zfrglob) is set to a non-zero length, globbing is
+instead performed on the remote host: the server is asked for a list of
+matching files. This is highly dependent on how the server is implemented,
+though typically UNIX servers will provide support for basic glob
+patterns. This may in some cases be faster, as it avoids retrieving the
+entire list of directory contents.
+subsect(Automatic and temporary reopening)
+As described for the tt(zfopen) command, a subsequent tt(zfopen) with no
+parameters will reopen the connection to the last host (this includes
+connections made with the tt(zfanon) command). Opened in this fashion, the
+connection starts in the default remote directory and will remain open
+until explicitly closed.
+Automatic re-opening is also available. If a connection is not currently
+open and a command requiring a connection is given, the last connection is
+implicitly reopened. In this case the directory which was current when the
+connection was closed again becomes the current directory (unless, of
+course, the command given changes it). Automatic reopening will also take
+place if the connection was close by the remote server for whatever reason
+(e.g. a timeout). It is not available if the tt(-1) option to tt(zfopen)
+or tt(zfanon) was used.
+Furthermore, if the command issued is a file transfer, the connection will
+be closed after the transfer is finished, hence providing a one-shot mode
+for transfers. This does not apply to directory changing or listing
+commands; for example a tt(zfdir) may reopen a connection but will leave it
+open. Also, automatic closure will only ever happen in the same command as
+automatic opening, i.e a tt(zfdir) directly followed by a tt(zfget) will
+never close the connection automatically.
+Information about the previous connection is given by the tt(zfstat)
+function. So, for example, if that reports:
+nofill(Last session: ftp.bar.com:/pub/textfiles)
+then the command tt(zfget file.txt) will attempt to reopen a connection to
+tt(ftp.bar.com), retrieve the file tt(/pub/textfiles/file.txt), and
+immediately close the connection again. On the other hand, tt(zfcd ..)
+will open the connection in the directory tt(/pub) and leave it open.
+Completion of remote files and directories is supported. The older,
+tt(compctl)-style completion is defined when tt(zfinit) is called; support
+for the new widget-based completion system is provided in the function
+tt(Completion/Builtins/_zftp), which should be installed with the other
+functions of the completion system and hence should automatically be